Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kripal, Ram, E-mail: ram_kripal2001@rediffmail.com; Yadav, Awadhesh Kumar, E-mail: aky.physics@gmail.com
2015-01-01
The zero field splitting parameter D of Cr{sup 3+} doped diammonium hexaaqua magnesium sulfate (DHMS) are calculated with perturbation formula using crystal field (CF) parameters from superposition model. The theoretically calculated ZFS parameters for Cr{sup 3+} in DHMS single crystal are compared with the experimental value obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The theoretical ZFS parameter D is similar to that from experiment. The energy band positions of optical absorption spectra of Cr{sup 3+} doped DHMS single crystal are calculated with CFA package, which are in good match with experimental values.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kripal, Ram, E-mail: ram_kripal2001@rediffmail.com; Yadav, Awadhesh Kumar, E-mail: aky.physics@gmail.com
2015-06-15
Zero field splitting parameters (ZFSPs) D and E of Cr{sup 3+} ion doped ammonium oxalate monohydrate (AOM) are calculated with formula using the superposition model. The theoretically calculated ZFSPs for Cr{sup 3+} in AOM crystal are compared with the experimental value obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Theoretical ZFSPs are in good agreement with the experimental ones. The energy band positions of optical absorption spectra of Cr{sup 3+} in AOM crystal calculated with CFA package are in good match with the experimental values.
Ormondt, van D.; Andriessen, J.; Dam, J.A.M.; Ast, van M.A.; Hartog, den H.W.; Bijvank, E.J.
1979-01-01
The electric field gradients (EFG) Vzz and Vxx-Vyy at the nucleus of 157Gd3+ have been determined, using ENDOR, for CaF2:Gd3+M+(M+=Li,K+) and SrCl2:Gd3+Na+. The results are compared with the electronic zero-field splitting parameters of Gd3+, B20 and B22 for the same sites. A simple relation between
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Montegrossi, G. [Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), via G. La Pira 4, I-50121, Florence (Italy)]. E-mail: giordano@geo.unifi.it; Di Benedetto, F. [Museo di Storia Naturale, Universita di Firenze, via G. La Pira 4, I-50121, Florence (Italy); Minissale, A. [Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), via G. La Pira 4, I-50121, Florence (Italy); Paladini, M. [Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), via G. La Pira 4, I-50121, Florence (Italy); Pardi, L.A. [Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici, CNR, via G. Moruzzi 1, I-56124 Pisa (Italy); Romanelli, M. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Firenze, via della Lastruccia 3, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Romei, F. [Dipartimento di Biologia Animale e Genetica, Universita di Firenze, Via Romana 17, I-50100 Florence (Italy)
2006-05-15
An analytical approach, based on the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of Mn(II) in travertines, has been developed in order to obtain relevant information about the local inhomogeneity of calcite and about the thermodynamic conditions which control the formation of travertine deposits. This information is crucial to constrain the precipitation of travertine under different geochemical contexts. An empirical correlation between the spectral features and the zero-field splitting (ZFS) interaction has been established through numerical simulations of EPR spectra. The variability of the investigated parameters and the applicability of the method have been tested on several travertines from Central Italy.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montegrossi, G.; Di Benedetto, F.; Minissale, A.; Paladini, M.; Pardi, L.A.; Romanelli, M.; Romei, F.
2006-01-01
An analytical approach, based on the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of Mn(II) in travertines, has been developed in order to obtain relevant information about the local inhomogeneity of calcite and about the thermodynamic conditions which control the formation of travertine deposits. This information is crucial to constrain the precipitation of travertine under different geochemical contexts. An empirical correlation between the spectral features and the zero-field splitting (ZFS) interaction has been established through numerical simulations of EPR spectra. The variability of the investigated parameters and the applicability of the method have been tested on several travertines from Central Italy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hansen, J.B.; Divin, Y.Y.; Mygind, J.
1986-01-01
We report on the observation of full splitting of the first zero-field steps in the I-V curves of Josephson transmission lines of intermediate length Lroughly-equal(3--5)lambda/sub J/, where lambda/sub J/ is the Josephson penetration length. We study in detail how this splitting of the step into two branches depends on the temperature of the junction and on a weak applied magnetic field. We relate the splitting to excitations in the junctions whose behavior is described by the perturbed Sine-Gordon equation
Zero Field Splitting of the chalcogen diatomics using relativistic correlated wave-function methods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rota, Jean-Baptiste; Knecht, Stefan; Fleig, Timo
2011-01-01
The spectrum arising from the (π*)2 configuration of the chalcogen dimers, namely the X21, a2 and b0+ states, is calculated using Wave-Function Theory (WFT) based methods. Two-component (2c) and four-component (4c) MultiReference Configuration Interaction (MRCI) and Fock-Space Coupled Cluster (FSCC......) methods are used as well as two-step methods Spin-Orbit Complete Active Space Perturbation Theory at 2nd order (SO-CASPT2) and Spin-Orbit Difference Dedicated Configuration Interaction (SODDCI). The energy of the X21 state corresponds to the Zero-Field Splitting (ZFS) of the ground state spin triplet...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ribbing, C.; Odelius, M.; Laaksonen, A.; Kowalewski, J.; Roos, B.
1990-01-01
A simple nonempirical scheme is presented for calculating the splittings of ground state multiplets (the zero-field splitting) is transition metal complexes. The method employs single reference, single excitation CI calculations based on open-shell RHF. The spin-orbit coupling is described using an effective one-electron, one-center operators. The method is applied to the triplet state Ni(II) complexes with one to six water molecules. the validity of the second-order perturbation theory approach and of the spin-Hamiltonian formalism is found to be limited to slightly distorted octahedral systems. Generally, small changes in the geometries of the complexes are found to cause substantial variations of the splitting pattern
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khan, Shehryar, E-mail: sherkhan@fysik.su.se; Odelius, Michael, E-mail: odelius@fysik.su.se [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Kubica-Misztal, Aleksandra [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, ul. Reymonta 4, PL-30-059 Krakow (Poland); Kruk, Danuta [Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Sloneczna 54, Olsztyn PL-10710 (Poland); Kowalewski, Jozef [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)
2015-01-21
The zero-field splitting (ZFS) of the electronic ground state in paramagnetic ions is a sensitive probe of the variations in the electronic and molecular structure with an impact on fields ranging from fundamental physical chemistry to medical applications. A detailed analysis of the ZFS in a series of symmetric Gd(III) complexes is presented in order to establish the applicability and accuracy of computational methods using multiconfigurational complete-active-space self-consistent field wave functions and of density functional theory calculations. The various computational schemes are then applied to larger complexes Gd(III)DOTA(H{sub 2}O){sup −}, Gd(III)DTPA(H{sub 2}O){sup 2−}, and Gd(III)(H{sub 2}O){sub 8}{sup 3+} in order to analyze how the theoretical results compare to experimentally derived parameters. In contrast to approximations based on density functional theory, the multiconfigurational methods produce results for the ZFS of Gd(III) complexes on the correct order of magnitude.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rudowicz, Czesław, E-mail: crudowicz@zut.edu.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, A. Mickiewicz University, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Institute of Physics, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin (Poland); Açıkgöz, Muhammed [Department of Chemistry, Rutgers University, Newark, New Jersey 07102 (United States); Gnutek, Paweł [Institute of Physics, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin (Poland)
2017-07-15
Graphical abstract: Using crystal structure data for [Ni(Me{sub 6}tren)Cl](ClO{sub 4}) and [Ni(Me{sub 6}tren)Br](Br) as well as taking into account the Jahn-Teller distortions of five-fold coordinated Ni-complexes revealed by DFT geometry optimization, the ZFSPs are predicted for several structural models and wide ranges of model parameters. - Highlights: • Semiempirical study of potential SMM [Ni(Me{sub 6}tren)Cl](ClO{sub 4}) and [Ni(Me{sub 6}tren)Br](Br). • Superposition model analysis of zero field splitting (ZFS) parameters carried out. • Jahn-Teller distortions revealed by DFT geometry optimization considered. • SPM predicts D(ZFS) of observed magnitudes with positive or negative signs. • Results corroborate giant ZFS, which shall not be equated with magnetic anisotropy. - Abstract: Potential single-ion magnet Ni{sup 2+} systems: [Ni(Me{sub 6}tren)Cl](ClO{sub 4}) and [Ni(Me{sub 6}tren)Br](Br) reveal unusually high zero field splitting (ZFS). The ZFS parameter (ZFSP) D{sub expt} = −120 to −180 cm{sup −1} was determined indirectly by high-magnetic field, high-frequency electron magnetic resonance (HMF-EMR). Modeling ZFSPs using the density functional theory (DFT) codes predicts D values: −100 to −200 cm{sup −1}. Such ZFSP values may seem controversial in view of the D values usually not exceeding several tens of cm{sup −1} for Ni{sup 2+} ions. To corroborate or otherwise these results and elucidate the origin of the huge ZFS (named inappropriately as ‘giant uniaxial magnetic anisotropy’) and respective wavefunctions, we have undertaken semiempirical modeling based on the crystal field (CF) and spin Hamiltonians (SH) theory. In this paper, a feasibility study is carried out to ascertain if superposition model (SPM) calculations may yield such huge D values for these Ni{sup 2+} systems. Using crystal structure data for [Ni(Me{sub 6}tren)Cl](ClO{sub 4}) and [Ni(Me{sub 6}tren)Br](Br) as well as taking into account the Jahn
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rudowicz, Czesław, E-mail: crudowicz@zut.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Al. Piastów 17, 70-310 Szczecin (Poland); Karbowiak, Mirosław [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wrocław, ul. F. Joliot-Curie 14, 50-383 Wrocław (Poland)
2015-01-01
Survey of recent literature has revealed a doubly-worrying tendency concerning the treatment of the two distinct types of Hamiltonians, namely, the physical crystal field (CF), or equivalently ligand field (LF), Hamiltonians and the zero-field splitting (ZFS) Hamiltonians, which appear in the effective spin Hamiltonians (SH). The nature and properties of the CF (LF) Hamiltonians have been mixed up in various ways with those of the ZFS Hamiltonians. Such cases have been identified in a rapidly growing number of studies of the transition-ion based systems using electron magnetic resonance (EMR), optical spectroscopy, and magnetic measurements. These findings have far ranging implications since these Hamiltonians are cornerstones for interpretation of magnetic and spectroscopic properties of the single transition ions in various crystals or molecules as well as the exchange coupled systems (ECS) of transition ions, e.g. single molecule magnets (SMM) or single ion magnets (SIM). The seriousness of the consequences of such conceptual problems and related terminological confusions has reached a level that goes far beyond simple semantic issues or misleading keyword classifications of papers in journals and scientific databases. The prevailing confusion, denoted as the CF=ZFS confusion, pertains to the cases of labeling the true ZFS quantities as purportedly the CF (LF) quantities. Here we consider the inverse confusion between the CF (LF) quantities and the SH (ZFS) ones, denoted the ZFS=CF confusion, which consists in referring to the parameters (or Hamiltonians), which are the true CF (LF) quantities, as purportedly the ZFS (or SH) quantities. Specific cases of the ZFS=CF confusion identified in recent textbooks, reviews and papers, especially SMM- and SIM-related ones, are surveyed and the pertinent misconceptions are clarified. The serious consequences of the terminological confusions include misinterpretation of data from a wide range of experimental techniques and
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rudowicz Czesław
2015-07-01
Full Text Available The interface between optical spectroscopy, electron magnetic resonance (EMR, and magnetism of transition ions forms the intricate web of interrelated notions. Major notions are the physical Hamiltonians, which include the crystal field (CF (or equivalently ligand field (LF Hamiltonians, and the effective spin Hamiltonians (SH, which include the zero-field splitting (ZFS Hamiltonians as well as to a certain extent also the notion of magnetic anisotropy (MA. Survey of recent literature has revealed that this interface, denoted CF (LF ↔ SH (ZFS, has become dangerously entangled over the years. The same notion is referred to by three names that are not synonymous: CF (LF, SH (ZFS, and MA. In view of the strong need for systematization of nomenclature aimed at bringing order to the multitude of different Hamiltonians and the associated quantities, we have embarked on this systematization. In this article, we do an overview of our efforts aimed at providing a deeper understanding of the major intricacies occurring at the CF (LF ↔ SH (ZFS interface with the focus on the EMR-related problems for transition ions.
Zero field spin splitting in asymmetric quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hao Yafei
2012-01-01
Spin splitting of asymmetric quantum wells is theoretically investigated in the absence of any electric field, including the contribution of interface-related Rashba spin-orbit interaction as well as linear and cubic Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction. The effect of interface asymmetry on three types of spin-orbit interaction is discussed. The results show that interface-related Rashba and linear Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction can be increased and cubic Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction can be decreased by well structure design. For wide quantum wells, the cubic Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction dominates under certain conditions, resulting in decreased spin relaxation time.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rudowicz, Czesław, E-mail: crudowicz@zut.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Al. Piastów 17, 70-310 Szczecin (Poland); Karbowiak, Mirosław [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wrocław, ul. F. Joliot-Curie 14, 50-383 Wrocław (Poland)
2014-10-15
The single transition ions in various crystals or molecules as well as the exchange coupled systems (ECS) of transition ions, especially the single molecule magnets (SMM) or molecular nanomagnets (MNM), have been extensively studied in recent decades using electron magnetic resonance (EMR), optical spectroscopy, and magnetic measurements. Interpretation of magnetic and spectroscopic properties of transition ions is based on two physically distinct types of Hamiltonians: the physical crystal field (CF), or equivalently ligand field (LF), Hamiltonians and the effective spin Hamiltonians (SH), which include the zero-field splitting (ZFS) Hamiltonians. Survey of recent literature has revealed a number of terminological confusions and specific problems occurring at the interface between these Hamiltonians (denoted CF (LF)↔SH (ZFS)). Elucidation of sloppy or incorrect usage of crucial notions, especially those describing or parameterizing crystal fields and zero field splittings, is a very challenging task that requires several reviews. Here we focus on the prevailing confusion between the CF (LF) and SH (ZFS) quantities, denoted as the CF=ZFS confusion, which consists in referring to the parameters (or Hamiltonians), which are the true ZFS (or SH) quantities, as purportedly the CF (LF) quantities. The inverse ZFS=CF confusion, which pertains to the cases of labeling the true CF (LF) quantities as purportedly the ZFS quantities, is considered in a follow-up paper. The two reviews prepare grounds for a systematization of nomenclature aimed at bringing order to the zoo of different Hamiltonians. Specific cases of the CF=ZFS confusion identified in the recent textbooks, review articles, and SMM (MNM)- and EMR-related papers are surveyed and the pertinent misconceptions are outlined. The consequences of the terminological confusions go far beyond simple semantic issues or misleading keyword classifications of papers in journals and scientific databases. Serious
Biktagirov, Timur; Schmidt, Wolf Gero; Gerstmann, Uwe
2018-03-01
For high-spin centers, one of the key spectroscopic fingerprints is the zero-field splitting (ZFS) addressable by electron paramagnetic resonance. In this paper, an implementation of the spin-spin contribution to the ZFS tensor within the projector augmented-wave (PAW) formalism is reported. We use a single-determinant approach proposed by M. J. Rayson and P. R. Briddon [Phys. Rev. B 77, 035119 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevB.77.035119], and complete it by adding a PAW reconstruction term which has not been taken into account before. We benchmark the PAW approach against a well-established all-electron method for a series of diatomic radicals and defects in diamond and cubic silicon carbide. While for some of the defect centers the PAW reconstruction is found to be almost negligible, in agreement with the common assumption, we show that in general it significantly improves the calculated ZFS towards the all-electron results.
Zając, Magdalena; Rudowicz, Czesław; Ohta, Hitoshi; Sakurai, Takahiro
2018-03-01
Utilizing the package MSH/VBA, based on the microscopic spin Hamiltonian (MSH) approach, spectroscopic and magnetic properties of Fe2+ (3d6; S = 2) ions at (nearly) orthorhombic sites in Fe(NH4)2(SO4)2·6H2O (FASH) are modeled. The zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameters and the Zeeman electronic (Ze) factors are predicted for wide ranges of values of the microscopic parameters, i.e. the spin-orbit (λ), spin-spin (ρ) coupling constants, and the crystal-field (ligand-field) energy levels (Δi) within the 5D multiplet. This enables to consider the dependence of the ZFS parameters bkq (in the Stevens notation), or the conventional ones (e.g., D and E), and the Zeeman factors gi on λ, ρ, and Δi. By matching the theoretical SH parameters and the experimental ones measured by electron magnetic resonance (EMR), the values of λ, ρ, and Δi best describing Fe2+ ions in FASH are determined. The novel aspect is prediction of the fourth-rank ZFS parameters and the ρ(spin-spin)-related contributions, not considered in previous studies. The higher-order contributions to the second- and fourth-rank ZFSPs are found significant. The MSH predictions provide guidance for high-magnetic field and high-frequency EMR (HMF-EMR) measurements and enable assessment of suitability of FASH for application as high-pressure probes for HMF-EMR studies. The method employed here and the present results may be also useful for other structurally related Fe2+ (S = 2) systems.
Pressure-dependence of the zero-field splittings for the Fe8 single-molecule magnet
Takahashi, S.; Thompson, E.; Hill, S.; Tozer, S. W.; Harter, A. G.; Dalal, N. S.
2006-03-01
We present a study of the pressure-dependent electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum for the Fe8 single-molecule magnet (SMM). The biaxial [Fe8O2(OH)12(tacn)6]Br8.9H2O (Fe8) SMM has recently been studied extensively because its low-temperature magnetization dynamics are dominated by quantum tunneling of its spin S = 10 magnetic moment through a sizeable anisotropy barrier. To date, chemical methods have usually been employed in order to control the magnetic quantum tunneling (MQT) behavior of a SMM, e.g. by varying the magnetic ions in the molecular core, or the ligand/solvent environment. The advantage of this approach is that many different SMMs can be realized in this way, with widely varying MQT behavior. However, controllable variation of MQT is difficult. As an alternative approach for manipulation of the MQT, we have recently studied the effect of physical pressure on the Fe8 SMM. In this presentation, we show the pressure dependence of the zero-field splittings of Fe8, as studied by an angle and pressure-dependent high-frequency EPR technique.
Circularly polarized zero-phonon transitions of vacancies in diamond at high magnetic fields
Braukmann, D.; Glaser, E. R.; Kennedy, T. A.; Bayer, M.; Debus, J.
2018-05-01
We study the circularly polarized photoluminescence of negatively charged (NV-) and neutral (NV0) nitrogen-vacancy ensembles and neutral vacancies (V0) in diamond crystals exposed to magnetic fields of up to 10 T. We determine the orbital and spin Zeeman splitting as well as the energetic ordering of their ground and first-excited states. The spin-triplet and -singlet states of the NV- are described by an orbital Zeeman splitting of about 9 μ eV /T , which corresponds to a positive orbital g -factor of gL=0.164 under application of the magnetic field along the (001) and (111) crystallographic directions, respectively. The zero-phonon line (ZPL) of the NV- singlet is defined as a transition from the 1E' states, which are split by gLμBB , to the 1A1 state. The energies of the zero-phonon triplet transitions show a quadratic dependence on intermediate magnetic field strengths, which we attribute to a mixing of excited states with nonzero orbital angular momentum. Moreover, we identify slightly different spin Zeeman splittings in the ground (gs) and excited (es) triplet states, which can be expressed by a deviation between their spin g -factors: gS ,es=gS ,gs+Δ g with values of Δ g =0.014 and 0.029 in the (001) and (111) geometries, respectively. The degree of circular polarization of the NV- ZPLs depends significantly on the temperature, which is explained by an efficient spin-orbit coupling of the excited states mediated through acoustic phonons. We further demonstrate that the sign of the circular polarization degree is switched under rotation of the diamond crystal. A weak Zeeman splitting similar to Δ g μBB measured for the NV- ZPLs is also obtained for the NV0 zero-phonon lines, from which we conclude that the ground state is composed of two optically active states with compensated orbital contributions and opposite spin-1/2 momentum projections. The zero-phonon lines of the V0 show Zeeman splittings and degrees of the circular polarization with opposite
Jiang, Shang-Da; Maganas, Dimitrios; Levesanos, Nikolaos; Ferentinos, Eleftherios; Haas, Sabrina; Thirunavukkuarasu, Komalavalli; Krzystek, J; Dressel, Martin; Bogani, Lapo; Neese, Frank; Kyritsis, Panayotis
2015-10-14
The high-spin (S = 1) tetrahedral Ni(II) complex [Ni{(i)Pr2P(Se)NP(Se)(i)Pr2}2] was investigated by magnetometry, spectroscopic, and quantum chemical methods. Angle-resolved magnetometry studies revealed the orientation of the magnetization principal axes. The very large zero-field splitting (zfs), D = 45.40(2) cm(-1), E = 1.91(2) cm(-1), of the complex was accurately determined by far-infrared magnetic spectroscopy, directly observing transitions between the spin sublevels of the triplet ground state. These are the largest zfs values ever determined--directly--for a high-spin Ni(II) complex. Ab initio calculations further probed the electronic structure of the system, elucidating the factors controlling the sign and magnitude of D. The latter is dominated by spin-orbit coupling contributions of the Ni ions, whereas the corresponding effects of the Se atoms are remarkably smaller.
Split-Field Magnet facility upgraded
CERN PhotoLab
1977-01-01
The Split Field Magnet (SFM) was the largest spectrometer for particles from beam-beam collisions in the ISR. It could determine particle momenta in a large solid angle, but was designed mainly for the analysis of forward travelling particles.As the magnet was working on the ISR circulating beams, its magnetic field had to be such as to restore the correct proton orbit.The SFM, therefore, produced zero field at the crossing point and fields of opposite signs upstream and downstream of it and was completed by 2 large and 2 small compensator magnets. The gradient effects were corrected by magnetic channels equipped with movable flaps. The useful magnetic field volume was 28 m3, the induction in the median plane 1.14 T, the gap heigth 1.1 m, the length 10.5 m, the weight about 1000 ton. Concerning the detectors, the SFM was the first massive application of multiwire proportional chambers (about 70000 wires) which filled the main and the large compensator magnets. In 1976 an improved programme was started with tw...
Observation of Rashba zero-field spin splitting in a strained germanium 2D hole gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morrison, C.; Rhead, S. D.; Foronda, J.; Leadley, D. R.; Myronov, M.; Wiśniewski, P.
2014-01-01
We report the observation, through Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in the magnetoresistance, of spin splitting caused by the Rashba spin-orbit interaction in a strained Ge quantum well epitaxially grown on a standard Si(001) substrate. The Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations display a beating pattern due to the spin split Landau levels. The spin-orbit parameter and Rashba spin-splitting energy are found to be 1.0 × 10 −28 eVm 3 and 1.4 meV, respectively. This energy is comparable to 2D electron gases in III-V semiconductors, but substantially larger than in Si, and illustrates the suitability of Ge for modulated hole spin transport devices.
Khan, S.; Peters, V.; Kowalewski, J.; Odelius, M.
2018-03-01
The zero-field splitting (ZFS) of the ground state octet in aqueous Eu(II) and Gd(III) solutions was investigated through multi- configurational quantum chemical calculations and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations. Investigation of the ZFS of the lanthanide ions is essential to understand the electron spin dynamics and nuclear spin relaxation around paramagnetic ions and consequently the mechanisms underlying applications like magnetic resonance imaging. We found by comparing clusters at identical geometries but different metallic centres that there is not a simple relationship for their ZFS, in spite of the complexes being isoelectronic - each containing 7 unpaired f electrons. Through sampling it was established that inclusion of the first hydration shell has a dominant (over 90 %) influence on the ZFS. Extended sampling of aqueous Gd(III) showed that the 2 nd order spin Hamiltonian formalism is valid and that the rhombic ZFS component is decisive.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rudowicz, C.
2008-01-01
For respective quantities, i.e., Hamiltonians, parameters, and energy level splittings, related to two physically distinct notions X and Y, various cases of confused terminology have been identified in literature. Referring to a quantity related actually to the notion Y using incorrectly the name of another well-defined notion X constitutes, what may be defined for short as, the type X=Y confusion. An ongoing survey of magnetism literature indicates that quantities related to zero-field splitting (ZFS) or equivalently fine structure (FS) are most often confused with those related to crystal-field (CF) or equivalently ligand field (LF). In this review the CF=ZFS confusion cases, i.e., labelling actual ZFS/FS quantities as purportedly 'CF/LF' ones, appearing in magnetism studies are surveyed and clarified. Part I covers the cases occurring in literature dealing with specific compounds. In this part model studies of spin systems are surveyed. The cases of terminology mixing up actual ZFS/FS quantities with purported CF/LF ones are identified and presented comprehensively in tabular form. To facilitate discussion, problems pertinent for the CF=ZFS confusion are categorized into several groups, including origin of the two notions, physical consequences, usage of specific numerical values, invoking real magnetic spin systems, and properties of spin S=1/2 systems. Physical implications of this confusion for interpretation of model results are also considered. Overall implications of incorrect terminology go beyond simple semantic issues and concern possible misinterpretation of data describing various physical properties of models studied. Such terminology contributes also to misleading keyword classifications of papers in journals and scientific databases. Other types of confusion identified in survey of magnetism literature will be discussed in separate reviews
An Examination Of Fracture Splitting Parameters Of Crackable Connecting Rods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zafer Özdemir
2000-06-01
Full Text Available Fracture splitting method is an innovative processing technique in the field of automobile engine connecting rod (con/rod manufacturing. Compared with traditional method, this technique has remarkable advantages. Manufacturing procedures, equipment and tools investment can be decreased and energy consumption reduced remarkably. Furthermore, product quality and bearing capability can also be improved. It provides a high quality, high accuracy and low cost route for producing connecting rods (con/rods. With the many advantages mentioned above, this method has attracted manufacturers attention and has been utilized in many types of con/rod manufacturing. In this article, the method and the advantages it provides, such as materials, notches for fracture splitting, fracture splitting conditions and fracture splitting equipment are discussed in detail. The paper describes an analysis of examination of fracture splitting parameters and optik-SEM fractography of C70S6 crackable connectıng rod. Force and velocity parameters are investigated. That uniform impact force distrubition starting from the starting notch causes brittle and cleavage failure mode is obtained as a result. This induces to decrease the toughness.
Pulsed zero field NMR of solids and liquid crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thayer, A.M.
1987-02-01
This work describes the development and applications to solids and liquid crystals of zero field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments with pulsed dc magnetic fields. Zero field NMR experiments are one approach for obtaining high resolution spectra of amorphous and polycrystalline materials which normally (in high field) display broad featureless spectra. The behavior of the spin system can be coherently manipulated and probed in zero field with dc magnetic field pulses which are employed in a similar manner to radiofrequency pulses in high field NMR experiments. Nematic phases of liquid crystalline systems are studied in order to observe the effects of the removal of an applied magnetic field on sample alignment and molecular order parameters. In nematic phases with positive and negative magnetic susceptibility anisotropies, a comparison between the forms of the spin interactions in high and low fields is made. High resolution zero field NMR spectra of unaligned smectic samples are also obtained and reflect the symmetry of the liquid crystalline environment. These experiments are a sensitive measure of the motionally induced asymmetry in biaxial phases. Homonuclear and heteronuclear solute spin systems are compared in the nematic and smectic phases. Nonaxially symmetric dipolar couplings are reported for several systems. The effects of residual fields in the presence of a non-zero asymmetry parameter are discussed theoretically and presented experimentally. Computer programs for simulations of these and other experimental results are also reported. 179 refs., 75 figs
Ortmann, Frank; Roche, Stephan
2013-02-22
We report on robust features of the longitudinal conductivity (σ(xx)) of the graphene zero-energy Landau level in the presence of disorder and varying magnetic fields. By mixing an Anderson disorder potential with a low density of sublattice impurities, the transition from metallic to insulating states is theoretically explored as a function of Landau-level splitting, using highly efficient real-space methods to compute the Kubo conductivities (both σ(xx) and Hall σ(xy)). As long as valley degeneracy is maintained, the obtained critical conductivity σ(xx) =/~ 1.4e(2)/h is robust upon an increase in disorder (by almost 1 order of magnitude) and magnetic fields ranging from about 2 to 200 T. When the sublattice symmetry is broken, σ(xx) eventually vanishes at the Dirac point owing to localization effects, whereas the critical conductivities of pseudospin-split states (dictating the width of a σ(xy) = 0 plateau) change to σ(xx) =/~ e(2)/h, regardless of the splitting strength, superimposed disorder, or magnetic strength. These findings point towards the nondissipative nature of the quantum Hall effect in disordered graphene in the presence of Landau level splitting.
Optimal field splitting for large intensity-modulated fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamath, Srijit; Sahni, Sartaj; Ranka, Sanjay; Li, Jonathan; Palta, Jatinder
2004-01-01
The multileaf travel range limitations on some linear accelerators require the splitting of a large intensity-modulated field into two or more adjacent abutting intensity-modulated subfields. The abutting subfields are then delivered as separate treatment fields. This workaround not only increases the treatment delivery time but it also increases the total monitor units (MU) delivered to the patient for a given prescribed dose. It is imperative that the cumulative intensity map of the subfields is exactly the same as the intensity map of the large field generated by the dose optimization algorithm, while satisfying hardware constraints of the delivery system. In this work, we describe field splitting algorithms that split a large intensity-modulated field into two or more intensity-modulated subfields with and without feathering, with optimal MU efficiency while satisfying the hardware constraints. Compared to a field splitting technique (without feathering) used in a commercial planning system, our field splitting algorithm (without feathering) shows a decrease in total MU of up to 26% on clinical cases and up to 63% on synthetic cases
Standard Model Particles from Split Octonions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gogberashvili M.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We model physical signals using elements of the algebra of split octonions over the field of real numbers. Elementary particles are corresponded to the special elements of the algebra that nullify octonionic norms (zero divisors. It is shown that the standard model particle spectrum naturally follows from the classification of the independent primitive zero divisors of split octonions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Jia; Xiao Jingling
2006-01-01
We study theoretically the ground state energy of a polaron near the interface of a polar-polar semiconductor by considering the Rashba spin-orbit (SO) coupling with the Lee-Low-Pines intermediate coupling method. Our numerical results show that the Rashba SO interaction originating from the inversion asymmetry in the heterostructure splits the ground state energy of the polaron. The electron areal density and vector dependence of the ratio of the SO interaction to the total ground state energy or other energy composition are obvious. One can see that even without any external magnetic field, the ground state energy can be split by the Rashba SO interaction, and this split is not a single but a complex one. Since the presents of the phonons, whose energy gives negative contribution to the polaron's, the spin-splitting states of the polaron are more stable than electron's.
Rudowicz, Czesław; Karbowiak, Mirosław
2015-01-01
Survey of recent literature has revealed a doubly-worrying tendency concerning the treatment of the two distinct types of Hamiltonians, namely, the physical crystal field (CF), or equivalently ligand field (LF), Hamiltonians and the zero-field splitting (ZFS) Hamiltonians, which appear in the effective spin Hamiltonians (SH). The nature and properties of the CF (LF) Hamiltonians have been mixed up in various ways with those of the ZFS Hamiltonians. Such cases have been identified in a rapidly growing number of studies of the transition-ion based systems using electron magnetic resonance (EMR), optical spectroscopy, and magnetic measurements. These findings have far ranging implications since these Hamiltonians are cornerstones for interpretation of magnetic and spectroscopic properties of the single transition ions in various crystals or molecules as well as the exchange coupled systems (ECS) of transition ions, e.g. single molecule magnets (SMM) or single ion magnets (SIM). The seriousness of the consequences of such conceptual problems and related terminological confusions has reached a level that goes far beyond simple semantic issues or misleading keyword classifications of papers in journals and scientific databases. The prevailing confusion, denoted as the CF=ZFS confusion, pertains to the cases of labeling the true ZFS quantities as purportedly the CF (LF) quantities. Here we consider the inverse confusion between the CF (LF) quantities and the SH (ZFS) ones, denoted the ZFS=CF confusion, which consists in referring to the parameters (or Hamiltonians), which are the true CF (LF) quantities, as purportedly the ZFS (or SH) quantities. Specific cases of the ZFS=CF confusion identified in recent textbooks, reviews and papers, especially SMM- and SIM-related ones, are surveyed and the pertinent misconceptions are clarified. The serious consequences of the terminological confusions include misinterpretation of data from a wide range of experimental techniques and
Leto, Domenick F; Massie, Allyssa A; Colmer, Hannah E; Jackson, Timothy A
2016-04-04
X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to probe the ground-state electronic structures of mononuclear Mn(IV) complexes [Mn(IV)(OH)2(Me2EBC)](2+) and [Mn(IV)(O)(OH)(Me2EBC)](+). These compounds are known to effect C-H bond oxidation reactions by a hydrogen-atom transfer mechanism. They provide an ideal system for comparing Mn(IV)-hydroxo versus Mn(IV)-oxo motifs, as they differ by only a proton. Simulations of 5 K EPR data, along with analysis of variable-temperature EPR signal intensities, allowed for the estimation of ground-state zero-field splitting (ZFS) and (55)Mn hyperfine parameters for both complexes. From this analysis, it was concluded that the Mn(IV)-oxo complex [Mn(IV)(O)(OH)(Me2EBC)](+) has an axial ZFS parameter D (D = +1.2(0.4) cm(-1)) and rhombicity (E/D = 0.22(1)) perturbed relative to the Mn(IV)-hydroxo analogue [Mn(IV)(OH)2(Me2EBC)](2+) (|D| = 0.75(0.25) cm(-1); E/D = 0.15(2)), although the complexes have similar (55)Mn values (a = 7.7 and 7.5 mT, respectively). The ZFS parameters for [Mn(IV)(OH)2(Me2EBC)](2+) were compared with values obtained previously through variable-temperature, variable-field magnetic circular dichroism (VTVH MCD) experiments. While the VTVH MCD analysis can provide a reasonable estimate of the magnitude of D, the E/D values were poorly defined. Using the ZFS parameters reported for these complexes and five other mononuclear Mn(IV) complexes, we employed coupled-perturbed density functional theory (CP-DFT) and complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) calculations with second-order n-electron valence-state perturbation theory (NEVPT2) correction, to compare the ability of these two quantum chemical methods for reproducing experimental ZFS parameters for Mn(IV) centers. The CP-DFT approach was found to provide reasonably acceptable values for D, whereas the CASSCF/NEVPT2 method fared worse, considerably overestimating the magnitude of D in several cases. Both methods were poor in
Generalized field-splitting algorithms for optimal IMRT delivery efficiency
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kamath, Srijit [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Sahni, Sartaj [Department of Computer and Information Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Li, Jonathan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Ranka, Sanjay [Department of Computer and Information Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Palta, Jatinder [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)
2007-09-21
Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) uses radiation beams of varying intensities to deliver varying doses of radiation to different areas of the tissue. The use of IMRT has allowed the delivery of higher doses of radiation to the tumor and lower doses to the surrounding healthy tissue. It is not uncommon for head and neck tumors, for example, to have large treatment widths that are not deliverable using a single field. In such cases, the intensity matrix generated by the optimizer needs to be split into two or three matrices, each of which may be delivered using a single field. Existing field-splitting algorithms used the pre-specified arbitrary split line or region where the intensity matrix is split along a column, i.e., all rows of the matrix are split along the same column (with or without the overlapping of split fields, i.e., feathering). If three fields result, then the two splits are along the same two columns for all rows. In this paper we study the problem of splitting a large field into two or three subfields with the field width as the only constraint, allowing for an arbitrary overlap of the split fields, so that the total MU efficiency of delivering the split fields is maximized. Proof of optimality is provided for the proposed algorithm. An average decrease of 18.8% is found in the total MUs when compared to the split generated by a commercial treatment planning system and that of 10% is found in the total MUs when compared to the split generated by our previously published algorithm. For more information on this article, see medicalphysicsweb.org.
On asymptotic solutions of Regge field theory in zero transverse dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bondarenko, S.; Horwitz, L.; Levitan, J.; Yahalom, A.
2013-01-01
An investigation of dynamical properties of solutions of a toy model of interacting Pomerons with triple vertex in zero transverse dimension is performed. Stable points and corresponding solutions at the limit of large rapidity are studied in the framework of a given model. It is shown that, at large rapidity, the “fan” amplitude is also a leading solution for the full RFT-0 (Regge Field Theory in zero transverse dimensions) Hamiltonian with both vertices of Pomeron splitting and merging included. An analytical form of the symmetrical solution of the equations of motion at high energy is obtained as well. For the solutions we have found, the scattering amplitude at large values of rapidity is calculated. Stability of the solutions is investigated by Lyapunov functions and the presence of closed cycles in solutions is demonstrated by the new method
CERN PhotoLab
1975-01-01
The experimental apparatus used at intersection 4 around the Split-Field Magnet by the CERN-Bologna Collaboration (experiment R406). The plastic scintillator telescopes are used for precise pulse-height and time-of-flight measurements.
Crystal-field splittings in rare-earth-based hard magnets: An ab initio approach
Delange, Pascal; Biermann, Silke; Miyake, Takashi; Pourovskii, Leonid
2017-10-01
We apply the first-principles density functional theory + dynamical mean-field theory framework to evaluate the crystal-field splitting on rare-earth sites in hard magnetic intermetallics. An atomic (Hubbard-I) approximation is employed for local correlations on the rare-earth 4 f shell and self-consistency in the charge density is implemented. We reduce the density functional theory self-interaction contribution to the crystal-field splitting by properly averaging the 4 f charge density before recalculating the one-electron Kohn-Sham potential. Our approach is shown to reproduce the experimental crystal-field splitting in the prototypical rare-earth hard magnet SmCo5. Applying it to R Fe12 and R Fe12X hard magnets (R =Nd , Sm and X =N , Li), we obtain in particular a large positive value of the crystal-field parameter A20〈r2〉 in NdFe12N resulting in a strong out-of-plane anisotropy observed experimentally. The sign of A20〈r2〉 is predicted to be reversed by substituting N with Li, leading to a strong out-of-plane anisotropy in SmFe12Li . We discuss the origin of this strong impact of N and Li interstitials on the crystal-field splitting on rare-earth sites.
Zero-point field in curved spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hacyan, S.; Sarmiento, A.; Cocho, G.; Soto, F.
1985-01-01
Boyer's conjecture that the thermal effects of acceleration are manifestations of the zero-point field is further investigated within the context of quantum field theory in curved spaces. The energy-momentum current for a spinless field is defined rigorously and used as the basis for investigating the energy density observed in a noninertial frame. The following examples are considered: (i) uniformly accelerated observers, (ii) two-dimensional Schwarzschild black holes, (iii) the Einstein universe. The energy spectra which have been previously calculated appear in the present formalism as an additional contribution to the energy of the zero-point field, but particle creation does not occur. It is suggested that the radiation produced by gravitational fields or by acceleration is a manifestation of the zero-point field and of the same nature (whether real or virtual)
Mass splitting induced by gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maia, M.D.
1982-08-01
The exact combination of internal and geometrical symmetries and the associated mass splitting problem is discussed. A 10-parameter geometrical symmetry is defined in a curved space-time in such a way that it is a combination of de Sitter groups. In the flat limit it reproduces the Poincare-group and its Lie algebra has a nilpotent action on the combined symmetry only in that limit. An explicit mass splitting expression is derived and an estimation of the order of magnitude for spin-zero mesons is made. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao, M.G.; Lei, Y.
2004-01-01
Serious difficulties exist in explaining the zero-field splitting (ZFS) of 3d 5 ions in crystal, with the current crystal-field theory. The calculated cubic ZFS a-value of 3d 5 ion is positive identically. However, K.A. Mueller and W. Low found experimentally that a is negative for some ZnS:Mn 2+ crystals. In this work, an unified explanation is developed for the ZFS, optical spectra and pressure-induced spectral shift for the ZnS:Mn 2+ (bulk/nanocrystal) by considering the influence of the spin-orbit coupling to the ZFS and spectral bands. The excellent agreement between calculation and experiments shows that the above-mentioned difficulties can be removed based on the calculation model proposed by authors. Calculation result shows that there are two kinds of stable electron states with (λ π , λ σ , λ s ) = (0.2713448, -0.1619936, -0.08) and (0.2713448, 0.346885, -0.220), respectively, where (λ π , λ σ , λ s ) denote the mixing coefficients of Mn 2+ - 4S 2- anti-bonding in ZnS:Mn 2+
Mounting an ISR intersection chamber in the Split Field Magnet(SFM)
1977-01-01
The Split Field Magnet (SFM) was the largest spectrometer for particles from beam-beam collisions in the ISR. It could determine particle momenta in a large solid angle, but was designed mainly for the analysis of forward travelling particles.As the magnet was working on the ISR circulating beams, its magnetic field had to be such as to restore the correct proton orbit.The SFM, therefore, produced zero field at the crossing point and fields of opposite signs upstream and downstream of it and was completed by 2 large and 2 small compensator magnets. The gradient effects were corrected by magnetic channels equipped with movable flaps. The useful magnetic field volume was 28 m3, the induction in the median plane 1.14 T, the gap heigth 1.1 m, the length 10.5 m, the weight about 1000 ton.Concerning the detectors, the SFM was the first massive application of multiwire proportional chambers (about 70000 wires) which filled the main and the large compensator magnets. In the course of the years different types of vacu...
Magnetic resonance of field-frozen and zero-field-frozen magnetic fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pereira, A.R.; Pelegrini, F.; Neto, K. Skeff; Buske, N.; Morais, P.C.
2004-01-01
In this study magnetic resonance was used to investigate magnetic fluid samples frozen under zero and non-zero (15 kG) external fields. The magnetite-based sample containing 2x10 17 particle/cm 3 was investigated from 100 to 400 K. Analysis of the temperature dependence of the resonance field revealed bigger magnetic structures in the frozen state than in the liquid phase. Also, differences in the mesoscopic organization in the frozen state may explain the data obtained from samples frozen under zero and non-zero fields
Fourier transform zero field NMR and NQR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zax, D.B.
1985-01-01
In many systems the chemical shifts measured by traditional high resolution solid state NMR methods are insufficiently sensitive, or the information contained in the dipole-dipole couplings is more important. In these cases, Fourier transform zero field magnetic resonance may make an important contribution. Zero field NMR and NQR is the subject of this thesis. Chapter I presents the quantum mechanical background and notational formalism for what follows. Chapter II gives a brief review of high resolution magnetic resonance methods, with particular emphasis on techniques applicable to dipole-dipole and quadrupolar couplings. Level crossings between spin-1/2 and quadrupolar spins during demagnetization transfer polarization from high to low λ nuclei. This is the basis of very high sensitivity zero field NQR measurements by field cycling. Chapter III provides a formal presentation of the high resolution Fourier transform zero field NMR method. Theoretical signal functions are calculated for common spin systems, and examples of typical spectra are presented. Chapters IV and V review the experimental progress in zero field NMR of dipole-dipole coupled spin-1/2 nuclei and for quadrupolar spin systems. Variations of the simple experiment describe in earlier chapters that use pulsed dc fields are presented in Chapter VI
Proton and deuterium NMR experiments in zero field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Millar, J.M.
1986-02-01
High field solid-state NMR lineshapes suffer from inhomogeneous broadening since resonance frequencies are a function of molecular orientation. Time domain zero field NMR is a two-dimensional field-cycling technique which removes this broadening by probing the evolution of the spin system under zero applied field. The simplest version, the sudden transition experiment, induces zero field evolution by the sudden removal of the applied magnetic field. Theory and experimental results of this experiment and several variations using pulsed dc magnetic fuelds to initiate zero field evolution are presented. In particular, the pulsed indirect detection method allows detection of the zero field spectrum of one nuclear spin species via another (usually protons) by utilizing the level crossings which occur upon adiabatic demagnetization to zero field. Experimental examples of proton/deuteron systems are presented which demonstrate the method results in enhanced sensitivity relative to that obtained in sudden transition experiments performed directly on deuterium. High resolution 2 H NQR spectra of a series of benzoic acid derivatives are obtained using the sudden transition and indirect detection methods. Librational oscillations in the water molecules of barium chlorate monohydrate are studied using proton and deuterium ZF experiments. 177 refs., 88 figs., 2 tabs
Split Octonion electrodynamics and unified fields of dyons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bisht, P.S.
2004-01-01
Split octonion electrodynamics has been developed in terms of Zorn's vector matrix realization by reformulating electromagnetic potential, current, field tensor and other dynamical quantities. Corresponding field equation (Unified Maxwell's equations) and equation of motion have been reformulated by means of split octonion and its Zorn vector realization in unique, simpler and consistent manner. It has been shown that this theory reproduces the dyon field equations in the absence of gravito-dyons and vice versa
Aboutalebi, Mohammad; Bijarchi, Mohamad Ali; Shafii, Mohammad Behshad; Kazemzadeh Hannani, Siamak
2018-02-01
The studies surrounding the concept of microdroplets have seen a dramatic increase in recent years. Microdroplets have applications in different fields such as chemical synthesis, biology, separation processes and micro-pumps. This study numerically investigates the effect of different parameters such as Capillary number, Length of droplets, and Magnetic Bond number on the splitting process of ferrofluid microdroplets in symmetric T-junctions using an asymmetric magnetic field. The use of said field that is applied asymmetrically to the T-junction center helps us control the splitting of ferrofluid microdroplets. During the process of numerical simulation, a magnetic field with various strengths from a dipole located at a constant distance from the center of the T-junction was applied. The main advantage of this design is its control over the splitting ratio of daughter droplets and reaching various microdroplet sizes in a T-junction by adjusting the magnetic field strength. The results showed that by increasing the strength of the magnetic field, the possibility of asymmetric splitting of microdroplets increases in a way that for high values of field strength, high splitting ratios can be reached. Also, by using the obtained results at various Magnetic Bond numbers and performing curve fitting, a correlation is derived that can be used to accurately predict the borderline between splitting and non-splitting zones of microdroplets flow in micro T-junctions.
S-parameter at Non-Zero Temperature and Chemical Potential
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Søndergaard, Ulrik Ishøj; Sannino, Francesco; Pica, Claudio
2011-01-01
We compute the finite-temperature and matter density corrections to the S-parameter at the one loop level. At non-zero temperature T and matter density Lorentz symmetry breaks and therefore we suggest a suitable generalization of the S-parameter. By computing the plasma correction, we discover...... a reduction of the S-parameter in the physically relevant region of small external momenta for any non-zero chemical potential and T. In particular, the S-parameter vanishes at small m/T, where m is the mass of the fermions, due to the finite extent of the temporal direction. Our results are directly...
Viel, Alexandra; Coutinho-Neto, Maurício D; Manthe, Uwe
2007-01-14
Quantum dynamics calculations of the ground state tunneling splitting and of the zero point energy of malonaldehyde on the full dimensional potential energy surface proposed by Yagi et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 1154, 10647 (2001)] are reported. The exact diffusion Monte Carlo and the projection operator imaginary time spectral evolution methods are used to compute accurate benchmark results for this 21-dimensional ab initio potential energy surface. A tunneling splitting of 25.7+/-0.3 cm-1 is obtained, and the vibrational ground state energy is found to be 15 122+/-4 cm-1. Isotopic substitution of the tunneling hydrogen modifies the tunneling splitting down to 3.21+/-0.09 cm-1 and the vibrational ground state energy to 14 385+/-2 cm-1. The computed tunneling splittings are slightly higher than the experimental values as expected from the potential energy surface which slightly underestimates the barrier height, and they are slightly lower than the results from the instanton theory obtained using the same potential energy surface.
Zero field reversal probability in thermally assisted magnetization reversal
Prasetya, E. B.; Utari; Purnama, B.
2017-11-01
This paper discussed about zero field reversal probability in thermally assisted magnetization reversal (TAMR). Appearance of reversal probability in zero field investigated through micromagnetic simulation by solving stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gibert (LLG). The perpendicularly anisotropy magnetic dot of 50×50×20 nm3 is considered as single cell magnetic storage of magnetic random acces memory (MRAM). Thermally assisted magnetization reversal was performed by cooling writing process from near/almost Curie point to room temperature on 20 times runs for different randomly magnetized state. The results show that the probability reversal under zero magnetic field decreased with the increase of the energy barrier. The zero-field probability switching of 55% attained for energy barrier of 60 k B T and the reversal probability become zero noted at energy barrier of 2348 k B T. The higest zero-field switching probability of 55% attained for energy barrier of 60 k B T which corespond to magnetif field of 150 Oe for switching.
Rueda, A.
1985-01-01
That particles may be accelerated by vacuum effects in quantum field theory has been repeatedly proposed in the last few years. A natural upshot of this is a mechanism for cosmic rays (CR) primaries acceleration. A mechanism for acceleration by the zero-point field (ZPE) when the ZPE is taken in a realistic sense (in opposition to a virtual field) was considered. Originally the idea was developed within a semiclassical context. The classical Einstein-Hopf model (EHM) was used to show that free isolated electromagnrtically interacting particles performed a random walk in phase space and more importantly in momentum space when submitted to the perennial action of the so called classical electromagnrtic ZPE.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rueda, A.
1985-01-01
That particles may be accelerated by vacuum effects in quantum field theory has been repeatedly proposed in the last few years. A natural upshot of this is a mechanism for cosmic rays (CR) primaries acceleration. A mechanism for acceleration by the zero-point field (ZPE) when the ZPE is taken in a realistic sense (in opposition to a virtual field) was considered. Originally the idea was developed within a semiclassical context. The calssical Einstein-Hopf model (EHM) was used to show that free isolated electromagnrtically interacting particles performed a random walk in phase space and more importantly in momentum space when submitted to the perennial action of the so called classical electromagnetic ZPE
Estimation Parameters And Modelling Zero Inflated Negative Binomial
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cindy Cahyaning Astuti
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Regression analysis is used to determine relationship between one or several response variable (Y with one or several predictor variables (X. Regression model between predictor variables and the Poisson distributed response variable is called Poisson Regression Model. Since, Poisson Regression requires an equality between mean and variance, it is not appropriate to apply this model on overdispersion (variance is higher than mean. Poisson regression model is commonly used to analyze the count data. On the count data type, it is often to encounteredd some observations that have zero value with large proportion of zero value on the response variable (zero Inflation. Poisson regression can be used to analyze count data but it has not been able to solve problem of excess zero value on the response variable. An alternative model which is more suitable for overdispersion data and can solve the problem of excess zero value on the response variable is Zero Inflated Negative Binomial (ZINB. In this research, ZINB is applied on the case of Tetanus Neonatorum in East Java. The aim of this research is to examine the likelihood function and to form an algorithm to estimate the parameter of ZINB and also applying ZINB model in the case of Tetanus Neonatorum in East Java. Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE method is used to estimate the parameter on ZINB and the likelihood function is maximized using Expectation Maximization (EM algorithm. Test results of ZINB regression model showed that the predictor variable have a partial significant effect at negative binomial model is the percentage of pregnant women visits and the percentage of maternal health personnel assisted, while the predictor variables that have a partial significant effect at zero inflation model is the percentage of neonatus visits.
On standardization of low symmetry crystal fields
Gajek, Zbigniew
2015-07-01
Standardization methods of low symmetry - orthorhombic, monoclinic and triclinic - crystal fields are formulated and discussed. Two alternative approaches are presented, the conventional one, based on the second-rank parameters and the standardization based on the fourth-rank parameters. Mainly f-electron systems are considered but some guidelines for d-electron systems and the spin Hamiltonian describing the zero-field splitting are given. The discussion focuses on premises for choosing the most suitable method, in particular on inadequacy of the conventional one. Few examples from the literature illustrate this situation.
Analysis of main dynamic parameters of split power transmission
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Janulevičius
2008-06-01
Full Text Available The review carried out had shown one basic approach of split power transmission to the organization of drive which is applied to stepless transmissions of tractors and parallel hybrid cars. In the split power transmission the power split device uses a planetary gear. Tractor engine power in the split power transmission is transmitted to the drive shaft via a mechanical and hydraulic path. The theoretical analysis of main parameters of the split power transmission of the tractor is presented. The angular velocity of sun and coronary gears of the differential set is estimated by solution of the system of equations in which one equation is made for planetary differential gear, and another – for hydrostatic drive. The analysis of the transmission gear-ratio dependencies on the ratio of hydraulic machines capacities is carried out. Dependence of the variation of angular velocity of the coronary and the sun gears on the ground speed of the tractor is presented. Dependence of sum shaft torque and its constituents, carried by mechanical and hydraulic lines, on sum shaft angular velocity and ground speed of tractor and engine speed is also presented.
Chauvin, Nicolas; Mavel, Amaury; Jaffal, Ali; Patriarche, Gilles; Gendry, Michel
2018-02-01
Excitation photoluminescence spectroscopy is usually used to extract the crystal field splitting (ΔCR) and spin orbit coupling (ΔSO) parameters of wurtzite (Wz) InP nanowires (NWs). However, the equations expressing the valence band splitting are symmetric with respect to these two parameters, and a choice ΔCR > ΔSO or ΔCR InP NWs grown on silicon. The experimental results combined with a theoretical model and finite difference time domain calculations allow us to conclude that ΔCR > ΔSO in Wz InP.
Khan, Shehryar; Pollet, Rodolphe; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe; Kowalewski, Jozef; Odelius, Michael
2017-12-01
In this work, we present ab initio calculations of the zero-field splitting (ZFS) of a gadolinium complex [Gd(iii)(HPDO3A)(H2O)] sampled from an ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulation. We perform both post-Hartree-Fock (complete active space self-consistent field—CASSCF) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the ZFS and compare and contrast the methods with experimental data. Two different density functional approximations (TPSS and LC-BLYP) were investigated. The magnitude of the ZFS from the CASSCF calculations is in good agreement with experiment, whereas the DFT results in varying degrees overestimate the magnitude of the ZFS for both functionals and exhibit a strong functional dependence. It was found in the sampling over the AIMD trajectory that the fluctuations in the transient ZFS tensor derived from DFT are not correlated with those of CASSCF nor does the magnitude of the ZFS from CASSCF and DFT correlate. From the fluctuations in the ZFS tensor, we extract a correlation time of the transient ZFS which is on the sub-picosecond time scale, showing a faster decay than experimental estimates.
Sun, Baozhou; Yang, Deshan; Esthappan, Jackie; Garcia-Ramirez, Jose; Price, Samantha; Mutic, Sasa; Schwarz, Julie K; Grigsby, Perry W; Tanderup, Kari
2015-01-01
Dose accumulation of split-field external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and brachytherapy (BT) is challenging because of significant EBRT and BT dose gradients in the central pelvic region. We developed a method to determine biologically effective dose parameters for combined split-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and image-guided BT in locally advanced cervical cancer. Thirty-three patients treated with split-field-IMRT to 45.0-51.2 Gy in 1.6-1.8 Gy per fraction to the elective pelvic lymph nodes and to 20 Gy to the central pelvis region were included in this study. Patients received six weekly fractions of high-dose rate BT to 6.5-7.3 Gy per fraction. A dose tracker software was developed to compute the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD2) to gross tumor volume (GTV), organs-at-risk and point A. Total dose-volume histogram parameters were computed on the 3D combined EQD2 dose based on rigid image registration. The dose accumulation uncertainty introduced by organ deformations between IMRT and BT was evaluated. According to International Commission on Radiation Unit and Measurement and GEC European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology recommendations, D98, D90, D50, and D2cm3 EQD2 dose-volume histogram parameters were computed. GTV D98 was 84.0 ± 26.5 Gy and D2cc was 99.6 ± 13.9 Gy, 67.4 ± 12.2 Gy, 75.0 ± 10.1 Gy, for bladder, rectum, and sigmoid, respectively. The uncertainties induced by organ deformation were estimated to be -1 ± 4 Gy, -3 ± 5 Gy, 2 ± 3 Gy, and -3 ± 5 Gy for bladder, rectum, sigmoid, and GTV, respectively. It is feasible to perform 3D EQD2 dose accumulation to assess high and intermediate dose regions for combined split-field IMRT and BT. Copyright © 2015 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Automatic feathering of split fields for step-and-shoot intensity modulated radiation therapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dogan, Nesrin; Leybovich, Leonid B; Sethi, Anil; Emami, Bahman
2003-01-01
Due to leaf travel range limitations of the Varian Dynamic Multileaf Collimator (DMLC) system, an IMRT field width exceeding 14.5 cm is split into two or more adjacent abutting sub-fields. The abutting sub-fields are then delivered as separate treatment fields. The accuracy of the delivery is very sensitive to multileaf positioning accuracy. The uncertainties in leaf and carriage positions cause errors in the delivered dose (e.g., hot or cold spots) along the match line of abutting sub-fields. The dose errors are proportional to the penumbra slope at the edge of each sub-field. To alleviate this problem, we developed techniques that feather the split line of IMRT fields. Feathering of the split line was achieved by dividing IMRT fields into several sub-groups with different split line positions. A Varian 21EX accelerator with an 80-leaf DLMC was used for IMRT delivery. Cylindrical targets with varying widths (>14.5 cm) were created to study the split line positions. Seven coplanar 6 MV fields were selected for planning using the NOMOS-CORVUS TM system. The isocentre of the fields was positioned at the centre of the target volume. Verification was done in a 30 x 30 x 30 cm 3 polystyrene phantom using film dosimetry. We investigated two techniques to move the split line from its original position or cause feathering of them: (1) varying the isocentre position along the target width and (2) introduction of a 'pseudo target' outside of the patient (phantom). The position of the 'pseudo target' was determined by analysing the divergence of IMRT fields. For target widths of 14-28 cm, IMRT fields were automatically split into two sub-fields, and the split line was positioned along the centre of the target by CORVUS. Measured dose distributions demonstrated that the dose to the critical structure was 10% higher than planned when the split line crossed through the centre of the target. Both methods of modifying the split line positions resulted in maximum shifts of ∼1 cm
The zero-point field in non-inertial frames
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hacyan, S.
1985-01-01
The energy spectrum of the zero-point field as seen in non-inertial frames is investigated. Uniformly accelerated frames and black holes are considered. It is suggested that the radiation produced by black holes or acceleration is a manifestation of the zero-point field and of the same nature (whether real or virtual)
Extension of the direct statistical approach to a volume parameter model (non-integer splitting)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burn, K.W.
1990-01-01
The Direct Statistical Approach is a rigorous mathematical derivation of the second moment for surface splitting and Russian Roulette games attached to the Monte Carlo modelling of fixed source particle transport. It has been extended to a volume parameter model (involving non-integer ''expected value'' splitting), and then to a cell model. The cell model gives second moment and time functions that have a closed form. This suggests the possibility of two different methods of solution of the optimum splitting/Russian Roulette parameters. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik; Vadstrup, P.; Børsting, H.
2002-01-01
Using adaptive Lyapunov design a new approach for the design of an observer for speed sensorless control is developed. The resulting scheme leads to a nonlinear full order observer for the motor states and for the motor and inverter parameters including the rotor speed. Assuming motor parameters ...... known the design achieves stability with guaranteed region of attraction. Experiments demonstrate high dynamic performance even at zero rotor speed based only on the slip frequency caused by the load torque....
Conformal scalar fields and chiral splitting on super Riemann surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D'Hoker, E.; Phong, D.H.
1989-01-01
We provide a complete description of correlation functions of scalar superfields on a super Riemann surface, taking into account zero modes and non-trivial topology. They are built out of chirally split correlation functions, or conformal blocks at fixed internal momenta. We formulate effective rules which determine these completely in terms of geometric invariants of the super Riemann surface. The chirally split correlation functions have non-trivial monodromy and produce single-valued amplitudes only upon integration over loop momenta. Our discussion covers the even spin structure as well as the odd spin structure case which had been the source of many difficulties in the past. Super analogues of Green's functions, holomorphic spinors, and prime forms emerge which should pave the way to function theory on super Riemann surfaces. In superstring theories, chirally split amplitudes for scalar superfields are crucial in enforcing the GSO projection required for consistency. However one really knew how to carry this out only in the operator formalism to one-loop order. Our results provide a way of enforcing the GSO projection to any loop. (orig.)
Gauge invariant frequency splitting of the continuum Yang-Mills field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitter, P.K.; Valent, G.
1977-01-01
Frequency splitting plays an important role in Wilson's theory of critical phenomena. Here the authors give a theory of gauge invariant frequency splitting of the Yang-Mills field in 4 dimensions. (Auth.)
Zero-range effective field theory for resonant wino dark matter. Part III. Annihilation effects
Braaten, Eric; Johnson, Evan; Zhang, Hong
2018-01-01
Near a critical value of the wino mass where there is a zero-energy S-wave resonance at the neutral-wino-pair threshold, low-energy winos can be described by a zero-range effective field theory (ZREFT) in which the winos interact nonperturbatively through a contact interaction and through Coulomb interactions. The effects of wino-pair annihilation into electroweak gauge bosons are taken into account through the analytic continuation of the real parameters for the contact interaction to comple...
Molecular structure and motion in zero field magnetic resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jarvie, T.P.
1989-10-01
Zero field magnetic resonance is well suited for the determination of molecular structure and the study of motion in disordered materials. Experiments performed in zero applied magnetic field avoid the anisotropic broadening in high field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. As a result, molecular structure and subtle effects of motion are more readily observed
Zero-field quantum critical point in CeCoIn5.
Tokiwa, Y; Bauer, E D; Gegenwart, P
2013-09-06
Quantum criticality in the normal and superconducting states of the heavy-fermion metal CeCoIn5 is studied by measurements of the magnetic Grüneisen ratio ΓH and specific heat in different field orientations and temperatures down to 50 mK. A universal temperature over magnetic field scaling of ΓH in the normal state indicates a hidden quantum critical point at zero field. Within the superconducting state, the quasiparticle entropy at constant temperature increases upon reducing the field towards zero, providing additional evidence for zero-field quantum criticality.
Crystal field in ErGa3 - a neutron spectroscopy study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murasik, A.; Czopnik, A.; Clementyev, E.; Schefer, J.
2000-01-01
The splitting of the J = 15/2 multiplet of Er in a cubic crystal field has been determined by inelastic scattering from a polycrystalline sample of ErGa 3 . On the base of observed intensities and their temperature variation we have been able to determine two crystal electric fields (CEF) parameters required for cubic symmetry. Least-squares fits of calculated crystal field transitions of the observed neutron inelastic scattering spectra taken at 12, 24, 32, 40, 50 and 80 K, gave the crystal field parameters: B 4 (7.15±0.05) x 10 -5 and B 6 = (1.28±0.05) x 1- -6 MeV yielding the Γ 7 doublet as a ground level with the overall splitting of 10.92 MeV. The results are used to calculate the temperature-depended zero field magnetization and the Schottky anomaly of the heat capacity of the ErGa 3 which yield reasonable agreement with experimental data obtained earlier. (author)
Topological field theory: zero-modes and renormalization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ouvry, S.; Thompson, G.
1989-09-01
We address the issue of the non-triviality of the observables in various Topological Field Theories by means of the explicit introduction of the zero-modes into the BRST algebra. Supersymmetric quantum mechanics and Topological Yang-Mills theory are dealt with in detail. It is shown that due to the presence of fermionic zero-modes the BRST algebra may be dynamically broken leading to non trivial observables albeit the local cohomology being trivial. However the metric and coupling constant independence of the observables are still valid. A renormalization procedure is given that correctly incorporates the zero-modes. Particular attention is given to the conventional gauge fixing in Topological Yang-Mills theories, with emphasis on the geometrical character of the fields and their role in the non-triviality of the observables
Parahydrogen-enhanced zero-field nuclear magnetic resonance
Theis, T.; Ganssle, P.; Kervern, G.; Knappe, S.; Kitching, J.; Ledbetter, M. P.; Budker, D.; Pines, A.
2011-07-01
Nuclear magnetic resonance, conventionally detected in magnetic fields of several tesla, is a powerful analytical tool for the determination of molecular identity, structure and function. With the advent of prepolarization methods and detection schemes using atomic magnetometers or superconducting quantum interference devices, interest in NMR in fields comparable to the Earth's magnetic field and below (down to zero field) has been revived. Despite the use of superconducting quantum interference devices or atomic magnetometers, low-field NMR typically suffers from low sensitivity compared with conventional high-field NMR. Here we demonstrate direct detection of zero-field NMR signals generated through parahydrogen-induced polarization, enabling high-resolution NMR without the use of any magnets. The sensitivity is sufficient to observe spectra exhibiting 13C-1H scalar nuclear spin-spin couplings (known as J couplings) in compounds with 13C in natural abundance, without the need for signal averaging. The resulting spectra show distinct features that aid chemical fingerprinting.
Zero-field magnetic response functions in Landau levels
Gao, Yang; Niu, Qian
2017-07-01
We present a fresh perspective on the Landau level quantization rule; that is, by successively including zero-field magnetic response functions at zero temperature, such as zero-field magnetization and susceptibility, the Onsager’s rule can be corrected order by order. Such a perspective is further reinterpreted as a quantization of the semiclassical electron density in solids. Our theory not only reproduces Onsager’s rule at zeroth order and the Berry phase and magnetic moment correction at first order but also explains the nature of higher-order corrections in a universal way. In applications, those higher-order corrections are expected to curve the linear relation between the level index and the inverse of the magnetic field, as already observed in experiments. Our theory then provides a way to extract the correct value of Berry phase as well as the magnetic susceptibility at zero temperature from Landau level fan diagrams in experiments. Moreover, it can be used theoretically to calculate Landau levels up to second-order accuracy for realistic models.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Iida, Y.; Yokoyama, T. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Hagenaar, H. J. [Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center, Org. ADBS, Building 252, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States)
2012-06-20
Frequencies of magnetic patch processes on the supergranule boundary, namely, flux emergence, splitting, merging, and cancellation, are investigated through automatic detection. We use a set of line-of-sight magnetograms taken by the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on board the Hinode satellite. We found 1636 positive patches and 1637 negative patches in the data set, whose time duration is 3.5 hr and field of view is 112'' Multiplication-Sign 112''. The total numbers of magnetic processes are as follows: 493 positive and 482 negative splittings, 536 positive and 535 negative mergings, 86 cancellations, and 3 emergences. The total numbers of emergence and cancellation are significantly smaller than those of splitting and merging. Further, the frequency dependence of the merging and splitting processes on the flux content are investigated. Merging has a weak dependence on the flux content with a power-law index of only 0.28. The timescale for splitting is found to be independent of the parent flux content before splitting, which corresponds to {approx}33 minutes. It is also found that patches split into any flux contents with the same probability. This splitting has a power-law distribution of the flux content with an index of -2 as a time-independent solution. These results support that the frequency distribution of the flux content in the analyzed flux range is rapidly maintained by merging and splitting, namely, surface processes. We suggest a model for frequency distributions of cancellation and emergence based on this idea.
Zero-point field in a circular-motion frame
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, S.K.; Soh, K.S.; Yee, J.H.
1987-01-01
The energy spectrum of zero-point fields of a massless scalar field observed by a detector in circular motion is studied by analyzing the Wightman function. It is shown to be quite different from the Planck spectrum which would have been expected from the result of a uniformly accelerated detector. In a nonrelativistic limit zero-point fields with frequencies only up to the first harmonics of the circular-motion frequency contribute dominantly. In an extremely relativistic case the energy spectrum is dominated by a particular pole in the complex proper-time plane
Development and applications of NMR [nuclear magnetic resonance] in low fields and zero field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bielecki, A.
1987-05-01
This dissertation is about nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in the absence of applied magnetic fields. NMR is usually done in large magnetic fields, often as large as can be practically attained. The motivation for going the opposite way, toward zero field, is that for certain types of materials, particularly powdered or polycrystalline solids, the NMR spectra in zero field are easier to interpret than those obtained in high field. 92 refs., 60 figs., 1 tab
Mini-Split Heat Pump Evaluation and Zero Energy Ready Home Support
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Herk, Anastasia [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)
2017-01-01
IBACOS worked with builder Imagine Homes to evaluate the performance of an occupied new construction test house following construction of the house in the hot, humid climate of San Antonio, Texas. The project measures the effectiveness of a space conditioning strategy using a multihead mini-split heat pump (MSHP) system in a reduced-load home to achieve acceptable comfort levels (temperature and humidity) and energy performance. IBACOS collected long-term data and analyzed the energy consumption and comfort conditions of the occupied house after one year of operation. Although measured results indicate that the test system provides comfort both inside and outside the ASHRAE Standard 55-2010 range, the occupants of the house claimed both adequate comfort and appreciation of the ease of use and flexibility of the installed MSHP system. IBACOS also assisted the builder to evaluate design and specification changes necessary to comply with Zero Energy Ready Home, but the builder chose to not move forward with it because of concerns about the 'solar ready' requirements of the program.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rudowicz, C.; Piwowarska, D.
2011-01-01
Magnetic and spectroscopic properties of the planar antiferromagnet K 2 FeF 4 are determined by the Fe 2+ ions at tetragonal sites. The two-dimensional easy-plane anisotropy exhibited by K 2 FeF 4 is due to the zero field splitting (ZFS) terms arising from the orbital singlet ground state of Fe 2+ ions with the spin S=2. To provide insight into the single-ion magnetic anisotropy of K 2 FeF 4 , the crystal field theory and the microscopic spin Hamiltonian (MSH) approach based on the tensor method is adopted. Survey of available experimental data on the crystal field energy levels and free-ion parameters for Fe 2+ ions in K 2 FeF 4 and related compounds is carried out to provide input for microscopic modeling of the ZFS parameters and the Zeeman electronic ones. The ZFS parameters are expressed in the extended Stevens notation and include contributions up to the fourth-order using as perturbation the spin-orbit and electronic spin-spin couplings within the tetragonal crystal field states of the ground 5 D multiplet. Modeling of the ZFS parameters and the Zeeman electronic ones is carried out. Variation of these parameters is studied taking into account reasonable ranges of the microscopic ones, i.e. the spin-orbit and spin-spin coupling constants, and the energy level splittings, suitable for Fe 2+ ions in K 2 FeF 4 and Fe 2+ :K 2 ZnF 4 . Conversions between the ZFS parameters in the extended Stevens notation and the conventional ones are considered to enable comparison with the data of others. Comparative analysis of the MSH formulas derived earlier and our more complete ones indicates the importance of terms omitted earlier as well as the fourth-order ZFS parameters and the spin-spin coupling related contributions. The results may be useful also for Fe 2+ ions at axial symmetry sites in related systems, i.e. Fe:K 2 MnF 4 , Rb 2 Co 1-x Fe x F 4 , Fe 2+ :Rb 2 CrCl 4 , and Fe 2+ :Rb 2 ZnCl 4 . - Highlights: → Truncated zero field splitting (ZFS) terms for Fe 2+ in K
Vortex dynamics in superconducting Corbino disk at zero field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Enomoto, Y.; Ohta, M.
2007-01-01
We study the radial current driven vortex dynamics in the Corbino disk sample at zero field, by using a logarithmically interacting point vortex model involving effect of temperature, random pinning centers, and disk wall confinement force. We also take into account both the current induced vortex pair nucleation and the vortex pair annihilation processes in the model. Simulation results demonstrate that the vortex motion induced voltage exhibits almost periodic pulse behavior in time, observed experimentally, for a certain range of the model parameters. Such an anomalous behavior is thought to originate from large fluctuations of the vortex number due to the collective dynamics of this vortex system
Zero sound and quasiwave: separation in the magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bezuglyj, E.V.; Bojchuk, A.V.; Burma, N.G.; Fil', V.D.
1995-01-01
Theoretical and experimental results on the behavior of the longitudinal and transverse electron sound in a weak magnetic field are presented. It is shown theoretically that the effects of the magnetic field on zero sound velocity and ballistic transfer are opposite in sign and have sufficiently different dependences on the sample width, excitation frequency and relaxation time. This permits us to separate experimentally the Fermi-liquid and ballistic contributions in the electron sound signals. For the first time the ballistic transfer of the acoustic excitation by the quasiwave has been observed in zero magnetic field
Geometrical Applications of Split Octonions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Merab Gogberashvili
2015-01-01
Full Text Available It is shown that physical signals and space-time intervals modeled on split-octonion geometry naturally exhibit properties from conventional (3 + 1-theory (e.g., number of dimensions, existence of maximal velocities, Heisenberg uncertainty, and particle generations. This paper demonstrates these properties using an explicit representation of the automorphisms on split-octonions, the noncompact form of the exceptional Lie group G2. This group generates specific rotations of (3 + 4-vector parts of split octonions with three extra time-like coordinates and in infinitesimal limit imitates standard Poincare transformations. In this picture translations are represented by noncompact Lorentz-type rotations towards the extra time-like coordinates. It is shown how the G2 algebra’s chirality yields an intrinsic left-right asymmetry of a certain 3-vector (spin, as well as a parity violating effect on light emitted by a moving quantum system. Elementary particles are connected with the special elements of the algebra which nullify octonionic intervals. Then the zero-norm conditions lead to free particle Lagrangians, which allow virtual trajectories also and exhibit the appearance of spatial horizons governing by mass parameters.
Long distance propagation of a polarized neutron beam in zero magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmidt, U.; Bitter, T.; El-Muzeini, P.
1992-01-01
A beam of fully polarized cold neutrons was transported through a zero magnetic field region of 70 m length without loss of polarization. The purpose of this exercise was twofold: Firstly, to demonstrate that the new zero-field neutron spin-echo method will work also for very long neutron flight paths; secondly, to prove in the most direct way that the neutron free-flight region of the ILL neutron-antineutron oscillation experiment was indeed sufficiently field-free ('quasifree condition') by using the neutrons themselves as a magnetometer. To this purpose the residual magnetic field integrals in the long 'zero-field' region were measured with a conventional neutron spin-echo method. The overall spin precession angle of the neutrons during their flight through the long zero-field region was found to be less than 2 0 . (orig.)
Enhanced valley splitting in monolayer WSe2 due to magnetic exchange field.
Zhao, Chuan; Norden, Tenzin; Zhang, Peiyao; Zhao, Puqin; Cheng, Yingchun; Sun, Fan; Parry, James P; Taheri, Payam; Wang, Jieqiong; Yang, Yihang; Scrace, Thomas; Kang, Kaifei; Yang, Sen; Miao, Guo-Xing; Sabirianov, Renat; Kioseoglou, George; Huang, Wei; Petrou, Athos; Zeng, Hao
2017-08-01
Exploiting the valley degree of freedom to store and manipulate information provides a novel paradigm for future electronics. A monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) with a broken inversion symmetry possesses two degenerate yet inequivalent valleys, which offers unique opportunities for valley control through the helicity of light. Lifting the valley degeneracy by Zeeman splitting has been demonstrated recently, which may enable valley control by a magnetic field. However, the realized valley splitting is modest (∼0.2 meV T -1 ). Here we show greatly enhanced valley spitting in monolayer WSe 2 , utilizing the interfacial magnetic exchange field (MEF) from a ferromagnetic EuS substrate. A valley splitting of 2.5 meV is demonstrated at 1 T by magnetoreflectance measurements and corresponds to an effective exchange field of ∼12 T. Moreover, the splitting follows the magnetization of EuS, a hallmark of the MEF. Utilizing the MEF of a magnetic insulator can induce magnetic order and valley and spin polarization in TMDCs, which may enable valleytronic and quantum-computing applications.
Zero-field spin relaxation of the positive muon in copper
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clawson, C.W.
1982-07-01
The spin relaxation of the μ + in high purity single crystal and polycrystalline copper has been measured at temperatures between 0.5 0 K and 5.2 0 K by the zero-field μ + SR technique. In both types of sample the experiments show a temperature independent dipolar width Δ/sub z/ = 0.389 +- 0.003 μs -1 and a hopping rate decreasing from approx. 0.5 μs -1 at 0.5 0 K to approx. 0.05 μs -1 above 5 0 K. This is the first direct proof of a dynamic effect in the low temperature μ + spin relaxation in copper. The relationship between the zero-field and transverse-field dipolar widths is discussed, and the measured zero-field width is found to be approx. 10% larger than expected based on the known transverse-field widths. A new μ + SR spectrometer has been constructed and used in this work. The spectrometer and the associated beam lines and data acquisition facilities are discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamieniarz, G.
1984-12-01
A zero temperature real space renormalization group block method is applied to the random quantum Ising model with a transverse field on the planar honeycomb and square lattices. For the bond diluted system the magnetisation and the separation of the ground state energy level (in the paramagnetic phase) are presented for several bond concentrations p. The critical exponents extracted both from the fixed-points and from direct numerical computations preserve some scaling relations, and the critical curve displays a characteristic discontinuity at the percolation concentration. For the McCoy and Wu distribution the random fields and bonds are found to introduce a strong relevant disorder. The order parameter still falls off continuously to zero for well-defined values of the parameters, but a new fixed point yields a slight change in the critical exponents. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mizushima, T.; Machida, K.
2010-01-01
We investigate how the vortex-vortex separation changes Majorana zero modes in the vicinity of the BCS-BEC (Bose-Einstein condensation) topological phase transition of p-wave resonant Fermi gases. By analytically and numerically solving the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation for spinless p-wave superfluids with plural vortices, it is demonstrated that the quasiparticle tunneling between neighboring vortices gives rise to the quantum oscillation of the low-lying spectra on the scale of the Fermi wavelength in addition to the exponential splitting. This rapid oscillation, which appears in the weak-coupling regime as a consequence of quantum oscillations of quasiparticle wave functions, disappears in the vicinity of the BCS-BEC topological phase transition. This is understandable from that the wave function of the Majorana zero modes is described by the modified Bessel function in the strong-coupling regime, and thus it becomes spread over the vortex core region. Due to the exponential divergence of the modified Bessel function, the concrete realization of the Majorana zero modes near the topological phase transition requires the neighboring vortices to be separated beyond the length scale defined by the coherence length and the dimensionless coupling constant. All these behaviors are also confirmed by carrying out the full numerical diagonalization of the nonlocal Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation in a two-dimensional geometry. Furthermore, this argument is expanded into the case of three-vortex systems, where a pair of core-bound and edge-bound Majorana states survive at zero-energy state regardless of the vortex separation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Avram, C.N. [Faculty of Physics, West University of Timisoara, Bd. V. Parvan No. 4, 300223 Timisoara (Romania); Gruia, A.S., E-mail: adigruia@yahoo.com [Faculty of Physics, West University of Timisoara, Bd. V. Parvan No. 4, 300223 Timisoara (Romania); Brik, M.G. [College of Sciences, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China); Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14C, Tartu 50411 (Estonia); Institute of Physics, Jan Dlugosz University, Armii Krajowej 13/15, PL-42200 Czestochowa (Poland); Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Barb, A.M. [Faculty of Physics, West University of Timisoara, Bd. V. Parvan No. 4, 300223 Timisoara (Romania)
2015-12-01
Calculations of the Cr{sup 3+} energy levels, spin-Hamiltonian parameters and vibrational spectra for the layered CrCl{sub 3} crystals are reported for the first time. The crystal field parameters and the energy level scheme were calculated in the framework of the Exchange Charge Model of crystal field. The spin-Hamiltonian parameters (zero-field splitting parameter D and g-factors) for Cr{sup 3+} ion in CrCl{sub 3} crystals were obtained using two independent techniques: i) semi-empirical crystal field theory and ii) density functional theory (DFT)-based model. In the first approach, the spin-Hamiltonian parameters were calculated from the perturbation theory method and the complete diagonalization (of energy matrix) method. The infrared (IR) and Raman frequencies were calculated for both experimental and fully optimized geometry of the crystal structure, using CRYSTAL09 software. The obtained results are discussed and compared with the experimental available data.
Experimental benchmarking of quantum control in zero-field nuclear magnetic resonance.
Jiang, Min; Wu, Teng; Blanchard, John W; Feng, Guanru; Peng, Xinhua; Budker, Dmitry
2018-06-01
Demonstration of coherent control and characterization of the control fidelity is important for the development of quantum architectures such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). We introduce an experimental approach to realize universal quantum control, and benchmarking thereof, in zero-field NMR, an analog of conventional high-field NMR that features less-constrained spin dynamics. We design a composite pulse technique for both arbitrary one-spin rotations and a two-spin controlled-not (CNOT) gate in a heteronuclear two-spin system at zero field, which experimentally demonstrates universal quantum control in such a system. Moreover, using quantum information-inspired randomized benchmarking and partial quantum process tomography, we evaluate the quality of the control, achieving single-spin control for 13 C with an average fidelity of 0.9960(2) and two-spin control via a CNOT gate with a fidelity of 0.9877(2). Our method can also be extended to more general multispin heteronuclear systems at zero field. The realization of universal quantum control in zero-field NMR is important for quantum state/coherence preparation, pulse sequence design, and is an essential step toward applications to materials science, chemical analysis, and fundamental physics.
Qu, Chen; Bowman, Joel M
2016-09-14
We report a full-dimensional, permutationally invariant potential energy surface (PES) for the cyclic formic acid dimer. This PES is a least-squares fit to 13475 CCSD(T)-F12a/haTZ (VTZ for H and aVTZ for C and O) energies. The energy-weighted, root-mean-square fitting error is 11 cm -1 and the barrier for the double-proton transfer on the PES is 2848 cm -1 , in good agreement with the directly-calculated ab initio value of 2853 cm -1 . The zero-point vibrational energy of 15 337 ± 7 cm -1 is obtained from diffusion Monte Carlo calculations. Energies of fundamentals of fifteen modes are calculated using the vibrational self-consistent field and virtual-state configuration interaction method. The ground-state tunneling splitting is computed using a reduced-dimensional Hamiltonian with relaxed potentials. The highest-level, four-mode coupled calculation gives a tunneling splitting of 0.037 cm -1 , which is roughly twice the experimental value. The tunneling splittings of (DCOOH) 2 and (DCOOD) 2 from one to three mode calculations are, as expected, smaller than that for (HCOOH) 2 and consistent with experiment.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yu, Yao; Chen, Josephine [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Leary, Celeste I. [Department of Radiation Medicine, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, OR (United States); Shugard, Erin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Yom, Sue S., E-mail: yoms@radonc.ucsf.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Department of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States)
2016-07-01
Radiation of the low neck can be accomplished using split-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (sf-IMRT) or extended-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (ef-IMRT). We evaluated the effect of these treatment choices on target coverage and thyroid and larynx doses. Using data from 14 patients with cancers of the oropharynx, we compared the following 3 strategies for radiating the low neck: (1) extended-field IMRT, (2) traditional split-field IMRT with an initial cord-junction block to 40 Gy, followed by a full-cord block to 50 Gy, and (3) split-field IMRT with a full-cord block to 50 Gy. Patients were planned using each of these 3 techniques. To facilitate comparison, extended-field plans were normalized to deliver 50 Gy to 95% of the neck volume. Target coverage was assessed using the dose to 95% of the neck volume (D{sub 95}). Mean thyroid and larynx doses were computed. Extended-field IMRT was used as the reference arm; the mean larynx dose was 25.7 ± 7.4 Gy, and the mean thyroid dose was 28.6 ± 2.4 Gy. Split-field IMRT with 2-step blocking reduced laryngeal dose (mean larynx dose 15.2 ± 5.1 Gy) at the cost of a moderate reduction in target coverage (D{sub 95} 41.4 ± 14 Gy) and much higher thyroid dose (mean thyroid dose 44.7 ± 3.7 Gy). Split-field IMRT with initial full-cord block resulted in greater laryngeal sparing (mean larynx dose 14.2 ± 5.1 Gy) and only a moderately higher thyroid dose (mean thyroid dose 31 ± 8 Gy) but resulted in a significant reduction in target coverage (D{sub 95} 34.4 ± 15 Gy). Extended-field IMRT comprehensively covers the low neck and achieves acceptable thyroid and laryngeal sparing. Split-field IMRT with a full-cord block reduces laryngeal doses to less than 20 Gy and spares the thyroid, at the cost of substantially reduced coverage of the low neck. Traditional 2-step split-field IMRT similarly reduces the laryngeal dose but also reduces low-neck coverage and delivers very high doses to the thyroid.
Parameter estimation of the zero inflated negative binomial beta exponential distribution
Sirichantra, Chutima; Bodhisuwan, Winai
2017-11-01
The zero inflated negative binomial-beta exponential (ZINB-BE) distribution is developed, it is an alternative distribution for the excessive zero counts with overdispersion. The ZINB-BE distribution is a mixture of two distributions which are Bernoulli and negative binomial-beta exponential distributions. In this work, some characteristics of the proposed distribution are presented, such as, mean and variance. The maximum likelihood estimation is applied to parameter estimation of the proposed distribution. Finally some results of Monte Carlo simulation study, it seems to have high-efficiency when the sample size is large.
Tunnel splitting for a high-spin molecule in an in-plane field
Zhu, Jia-Lin
2000-08-01
Direction and strength effects of a magnetic field on the ground-state tunnel splitting for a biaxial spin molecule with the model Hamiltonian H = k1Sz2 + k2Sy2- gµBHzSz- gµBHySy have been investigated within a continuous-spin approach including the Wess-Zumino-Berry term. The topological oscillation and the non-Kramers freezing indicated in the approach are in agreement with those observed in a recent experiment on Fe8 molecular nanomagnets. The behaviour of tunnel splitting with multiple orbits induced by strong fields has been revealed clearly.
Permanently split capacitor motor-study of the design parameters
Sarac, Vasilija; Stefanov, Goce
2017-09-01
Paper analyzes the influence of various design parameters on torque of permanently split capacitor motor. Motor analytical model is derived and it is used for calculating the performance characteristics of basic motor model. The acquired analytical model is applied in optimization software that uses genetic algorithms (GA) as an optimization method. Optimized motor model with increased torque is derived by varying three motor parameters in GA program: winding turns ratio, average air gap flux density and motor stack length. Increase of torque has been achieved for nominal operation but also at motor starting. Accuracy of the derived models is verified by Simulink. The acquired values of several motor parameters from transient characteristics of Simulink models are compared with the corresponding values obtained from analytical models of both motors, basic and optimized. Numerical analysis, based on finite element method (FEM), is also performed for both motor models. As a result of the FEM analysis, magnetic flux density in motor cross-section is calculated and adequate conclusions are derived in relation to core saturation and air gap flux density in both motor models.
A special correcting winding for the l = 2 torsatron with split-type helical coils
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kotenko, V.G.
2012-01-01
A split-type special correcting winding (split-type SCW) for the l = 2 torsatron toroidal magnetic system with split-type helical coils is considered. The split-type SCW gives the possibility of controlling the position of the magnetic surface configuration in the direction perpendicular to the torus equatorial plane. Numerical simulations were carried out to investigate the influence of the split-type SCW magnetic field on centered and distant relative to the torus surface magnetic surface configuration with a plane magnetic axis, being promising for the fusion reactor. The configuration is realized in the l = 2 torsatron with split-type helical coils and with the coils of an additional toroidal magnetic field. The calculations show that the split-type SCW magnetic field influence on the initial magnetic surface configuration leads mainly to the magnetic surface configuration displacement along the straight z axis of torus rotation. The displacement of ∼0.1a, a is the minor radius of the torus, has no critical effect on the magnetic surface parameters. An idea on the split-type SCW magnetic field structure is obtained by numerical simulations of the effect of this field as a minority magnetic field imposed on the magnetic field of a well-known configuration. The split-type SCW magnetic field is directed, predominantly along the major radius of the torus within its volume. The displacement range of the closed magnetic surface configuration depends on the split-type SCW magnetic field value.
Funes, Alejandro V; Carrella, Luca; Rentschler, Eva; Alborés, Pablo
2014-02-14
The new complex [Co(III)2Dy(III)2(OMe)2(teaH)2(Piv)6] in the {Co(III)2Dy(III)2} family, shows two well resolved thermal activated magnetization relaxation pathways under AC experiments in zero DC field. Fitted crystal field parameters suggest that the origin of these two pathways relies on two different excited mJ sub-levels.
Tunable zero-line modes via magnetic field in bilayer graphene
Wang, Ke; Qiao, Zhenhua
Zero-line modes appear in bilayer graphene at the internal boundary between two opposite vertical electrostatic confinements. These one-dimensional modes are metallic along the boundary and exhibit quantized conductance in the absence of inter-valley scattering. However, experimental results show that the conductance is around 0.5 e2/h rather than quantized. This observation can be explained from our numerical results, which suggest that the scattering between zero-line mode and bound states and the presence of atomic scale disorders that provide inter-valley scattering can effectively reduce the conductance to about 0.5 e2/h. We further find that out-of-plane magnetic field can strongly suppress these scattering mechanisms and gives rise to nearly quantized conductance. On one hand, the presence of magnetic field makes bound states become Landau levels, which reduces the scattering between zero-line mode and bound states. On the other hand, the wave function distributions of oppositely propagating zero-line modes at different valleys are spatially separated, which can strongly suppress the inter-valley scattering. Specifically speaking, the conductance can be increased to 3.2 e2/h at 8 T even when the atomic Anderson type disorders are considered.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sun, Baozhou; Yang, Deshan; Esthappan, Jackie
2015-01-01
-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and image-guided BT in locally advanced cervical cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Thirty-three patients treated with split-field-IMRT to 45.0-51.2 Gy in 1.6-1.8 Gy per fraction to the elective pelvic lymph nodes and to 20 Gy to the central pelvis region were...... included in this study. Patients received six weekly fractions of high-dose rate BT to 6.5-7.3 Gy per fraction. A dose tracker software was developed to compute the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD2) to gross tumor volume (GTV), organs-at-risk and point A. Total dose-volume histogram parameters were...
Application of split field technique with 42 MeV betatron bremsstrahlung
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spurny, V; Caha, A; Krystof, V; Ott, O [Vyzkumny Ustav Klinicke a Experimentalni Onkologie, Brno (Czechoslovakia)
1977-03-01
The split field technique of external irradiation in oncology is described. A 120x28x79 mm lead shielding block was manufactured for a bremsstrahlung radiation with 42 MeV maximum energy. The block was secured to a holder whose design corresponded to tube holders. The block shielding capacity was tested by phantom measurements at a focal depth of 130 mm and at a distance of the block from the phantom surface of 990 mm. For the 42 MeV bremsstrahlung the reduction was found to be 15% of the focal dose in the 20x20 cm/sup 2/ field in the focal depth at a distance of 1200 mm from the bremsstrahlung focus. Dose distribution was established by using two opposite fields in combination as well as by the courses of the maximum and the relative doses in variation with the female patient's antero-posterior diameter. The results show that the split field technique permits a short adjustment time, is simple and reproducible. As against cobalt application, the beam characteristics permit reducing the integral dose.
Zero Divisors in Associative Algebras over Infinite Fields
Schweitzer, Michael; Finch, Steven
1999-01-01
Let F be an infinite field. We prove that the right zero divisors of a three-dimensional associative F-algebra A must form the union of at most finitely many linear subspaces of A. The proof is elementary and written with students as the intended audience.
Signed zeros of Gaussian vector fields - density, correlation functions and curvature
Foltin, G
2003-01-01
We calculate correlation functions of the (signed) density of zeros of Gaussian distributed vector fields. We are able to express correlation functions of arbitrary order through the curvature tensor of a certain abstract Riemann Cartan or Riemannian manifold. As an application, we discuss one- and two-point functions. The zeros of a two-dimensional Gaussian vector field model the distribution of topological defects in the high-temperature phase of two-dimensional systems with orientational degrees of freedom, such as superfluid films, thin superconductors and liquid crystals.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brik, M.G.; Avram, C.N.; Avram, N.M.
2006-01-01
The effective spin-Hamiltonian (SH) parameters (zero-field splitting D and g factors g - parallel and g - perpendicular ) for Cr 3+ ions in LiSr(Al,Ga)F 6 crystals are calculated from the complete high-order perturbation formulae for a d 3 ion. Parameters of trigonal crystal field acting on the Cr 3+ ion are calculated. The magnitude of trigonal distortion of the [CrF 6 ] 3- clusters is related to the experimental measurements of the spin-Hamiltonian parameters in the considered systems. Since in both crystals g parallel perpendicular , [CrF 6 ] 3- clusters undergo an axial compression along the C 3 axis. Experimental values of the hyperfine structure constants A parallel and A perpendicular are used to evaluate the core polarization constant κ for Cr 3+ ion in both crystals
Split Field magnet at the I4 ISR intersection
1974-01-01
The Split-Field Magnet (SFM) at I4 had an unconventional topology, consisting of two dipole magnets of opposite polarity. It formed the heart of the first general facility at the ISR. It had a useful magnetic field volume of 28 m3 and a field in the median plane of 1.14 T. With a gap height of 1.1 m and length of 10.5 m, the magnet weighed about 1000 t. The SFM spectrometer featured the first large-scale application of MWPCs (about 70,000 wires), which filled the main magnet, visible here in 1974, and the two large compensator magnets.
Zero forcing parameters and minimum rank problems
Barioli, F.; Barrett, W.; Fallat, S.M.; Hall, H.T.; Hogben, L.; Shader, B.L.; Driessche, van den P.; Holst, van der H.
2010-01-01
The zero forcing number Z(G), which is the minimum number of vertices in a zero forcing set of a graph G, is used to study the maximum nullity/minimum rank of the family of symmetric matrices described by G. It is shown that for a connected graph of order at least two, no vertex is in every zero
Precision ESR Measurements of Transverse Anisotropy in the Single-molecule Magnet Ni4
Friedman, Jonathan; Collett, Charles; Allao Cassaro, Rafael
We present a method to precisely determine the transverse anisotropy in a single-molecule magnet (SMM) through electron-spin resonance measurements of a tunnel splitting that arises from the anisotropy via first-order perturbation theory. We demonstrate the technique using the SMM Ni4 diluted via co-crystallization in a diamagnetic isostructural analogue. At 5% dilution, we find markedly narrower resonance peaks than are observed in undiluted samples. Ni4 has a zero-field tunnel splitting of 4 GHz, and we measure that transition at several nearby frequencies using custom loop-gap resonators, allowing a precise determination of the tunnel splitting. Because the transition under investigation arises due to a first-order perturbation from the transverse anisotropy, and lies at zero field, we can relate the splitting to the transverse anisotropy independent of any other Hamiltonian parameters. This method can be applied to other SMMs with zero-field tunnel splittings arising from first-order transverse anisotropy perturbations. NSF Grant No. DMR-1310135.
Fast space travel by vacuum zero-point field perturbations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Froning, H. D. Jr.
1999-01-01
Forces acting upon an accelerating vehicle that is 'warping' its surrounding space are estimated, using the techniques of computational gas/fluid dynamics. Disturbances corresponding to perturbation of spacetime metric and vacuum zero-point fields by electromagnetic discharges are modeled as changes in the electric permittivity and magnetic permeability characteristics of the vacuum of space. And it is assumed that resistance to acceleration (vehicle inertia) is, in part, a consequence of zero-point radiation pressure field anisotropy in the warped space region surrounding the craft. The paper shows that resistance to vehicle acceleration can be diminished by spacetime warping that increases light propagation speed within the warped region. If sufficient warping is achieved, ship speed is slower than light speed within the region that surrounds it-even if it is moving faster-than-light with respect to earth
Field-Split Preconditioned Inexact Newton Algorithms
Liu, Lulu
2015-06-02
The multiplicative Schwarz preconditioned inexact Newton (MSPIN) algorithm is presented as a complement to additive Schwarz preconditioned inexact Newton (ASPIN). At an algebraic level, ASPIN and MSPIN are variants of the same strategy to improve the convergence of systems with unbalanced nonlinearities; however, they have natural complementarity in practice. MSPIN is naturally based on partitioning of degrees of freedom in a nonlinear PDE system by field type rather than by subdomain, where a modest factor of concurrency can be sacrificed for physically motivated convergence robustness. ASPIN, originally introduced for decompositions into subdomains, is natural for high concurrency and reduction of global synchronization. We consider both types of inexact Newton algorithms in the field-split context, and we augment the classical convergence theory of ASPIN for the multiplicative case. Numerical experiments show that MSPIN can be significantly more robust than Newton methods based on global linearizations, and that MSPIN can be more robust than ASPIN and maintain fast convergence even for challenging problems, such as high Reynolds number Navier--Stokes equations.
Field-Split Preconditioned Inexact Newton Algorithms
Liu, Lulu; Keyes, David E.
2015-01-01
The multiplicative Schwarz preconditioned inexact Newton (MSPIN) algorithm is presented as a complement to additive Schwarz preconditioned inexact Newton (ASPIN). At an algebraic level, ASPIN and MSPIN are variants of the same strategy to improve the convergence of systems with unbalanced nonlinearities; however, they have natural complementarity in practice. MSPIN is naturally based on partitioning of degrees of freedom in a nonlinear PDE system by field type rather than by subdomain, where a modest factor of concurrency can be sacrificed for physically motivated convergence robustness. ASPIN, originally introduced for decompositions into subdomains, is natural for high concurrency and reduction of global synchronization. We consider both types of inexact Newton algorithms in the field-split context, and we augment the classical convergence theory of ASPIN for the multiplicative case. Numerical experiments show that MSPIN can be significantly more robust than Newton methods based on global linearizations, and that MSPIN can be more robust than ASPIN and maintain fast convergence even for challenging problems, such as high Reynolds number Navier--Stokes equations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silveirinha, Mario G.; Engheta, Nader
2007-01-01
In this work, we investigate the detailed theory of the supercoupling, anomalous tunneling effect, and field confinement originally identified by Silveirinha and Engheta [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 157403 (2006)], where we demonstrated the possibility of using materials with permittivity ε near zero to drastically improve the transmission of electromagnetic energy through a narrow irregular channel with very subwavelength transverse cross section. Here, we present additional physical insights, describe applications of the tunneling effect in relevant waveguide scenarios (e.g., the 'perfect' or 'super' waveguide coupling), and study the effect of metal losses in the metallic walls and the possibility of using near-zero ε materials to confine energy in a subwavelength cavity with gigantic field enhancement. In addition, we systematically study the propagation of electromagnetic waves through narrow channels filled with anisotropic near-zero ε materials. It is demonstrated that these materials may have interesting potentials, and that for some particular geometries, the reflectivity of the channel is independent of the specific dimensions or parameters of near-zero ε transition. We also describe several realistic metamaterial implementations of the studied problems, based on standard metallic waveguides, microstrip line configurations, and wire media
A New Method for Determining Optimal Regularization Parameter in Near-Field Acoustic Holography
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yue Xiao
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Tikhonov regularization method is effective in stabilizing reconstruction process of the near-field acoustic holography (NAH based on the equivalent source method (ESM, and the selection of the optimal regularization parameter is a key problem that determines the regularization effect. In this work, a new method for determining the optimal regularization parameter is proposed. The transfer matrix relating the source strengths of the equivalent sources to the measured pressures on the hologram surface is augmented by adding a fictitious point source with zero strength. The minimization of the norm of this fictitious point source strength is as the criterion for choosing the optimal regularization parameter since the reconstructed value should tend to zero. The original inverse problem in calculating the source strengths is converted into a univariate optimization problem which is solved by a one-dimensional search technique. Two numerical simulations with a point driven simply supported plate and a pulsating sphere are investigated to validate the performance of the proposed method by comparison with the L-curve method. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can determine the regularization parameter correctly and effectively for the reconstruction in NAH.
Debernardi, Alberto; Fanciulli, Marco
Within the framework of the envelope function approximation we have computed - without adjustable parameters and with a reduced computational effort due to analytical expression of relevant Hamiltonian terms - the energy levels of the shallow P impurity in silicon and the hyperfine and superhyperfine splitting of the ground state. We have studied the dependence of these quantities on the applied external electric field along the [001] direction. Our results reproduce correctly the experimental splitting of the impurity ground states detected at zero electric field and provide reliable predictions for values of the field where experimental data are lacking. Further, we have studied the effect of confinement of a shallow state of a P atom at the center of a spherical Si-nanocrystal embedded in a SiO2 matrix. In our simulations the valley-orbit interaction of a realistically screened Coulomb potential and of the core potential are included exactly, within the numerical accuracy due to the use of a finite basis set, while band-anisotropy effects are taken into account within the effective-mass approximation.
Replica analysis of partition-function zeros in spin-glass models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takahashi, Kazutaka
2011-01-01
We study the partition-function zeros in mean-field spin-glass models. We show that the replica method is useful to find the locations of zeros in a complex parameter plane. For the random energy model, we obtain the phase diagram in the plane and find that there are two types of distributions of zeros: two-dimensional distribution within a phase and one-dimensional one on a phase boundary. Phases with a two-dimensional distribution are characterized by a novel order parameter defined in the present replica analysis. We also discuss possible patterns of distributions by studying several systems.
Zero-magnetic field effect in pathogen bacteria
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Creanga, D.E. E-mail: Dorina.Creanga@email.romdor@uaic.ro; Poiata, A.; Morariu, V.V. E-mail: vvm@140.itim-cj.ro; Tupu, P
2004-05-01
Two lots of Gram-negative bacterial strains were tested for antibiotic drug resistance after exposure to zero-magnetic field. We found that the magneto-sensitive strains represent half of the analyzed samples (three Pseudomonas and five Enterobacter strains), some of them presenting two-three times modified resistance to antibiotic, while others revealed eight or 16 times changed resistance. Pseudomonas strain magnetic sensitivity is revealed better by ampicillin and tetracycline, while Enterobacter strain magnetic sensitivity is revealed better by ampicillin, kanamycin and ofloxacin.
Zero-magnetic field effect in pathogen bacteria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Creanga, D.E.; Poiata, A.; Morariu, V.V.; Tupu, P.
2004-01-01
Two lots of Gram-negative bacterial strains were tested for antibiotic drug resistance after exposure to zero-magnetic field. We found that the magneto-sensitive strains represent half of the analyzed samples (three Pseudomonas and five Enterobacter strains), some of them presenting two-three times modified resistance to antibiotic, while others revealed eight or 16 times changed resistance. Pseudomonas strain magnetic sensitivity is revealed better by ampicillin and tetracycline, while Enterobacter strain magnetic sensitivity is revealed better by ampicillin, kanamycin and ofloxacin
Zero-rest-mass fields in an algebraically special curved space-time
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fordy, A P [King' s Coll., London (UK). Dept. of Mathematics
1977-04-01
Zero-rest-mass higher-spin fields in algebraically special vacuum back-ground space-times are considered. It is shown that the algebraic speciality of the background metric strongly restricts the form of the solutions of these fields. These results are used to study perturbations of the Schwarzschild black hole.
Zhang, Senfu; Zhang, Junwei; Zhang, Qiang; Barton, Craig; Neu, Volker; Zhao, Yuelei; Hou, Zhipeng; Wen, Yan; Gong, Chen; Kazakova, Olga; Wang, Wenhong; Peng, Yong; Garanin, Dmitry A.; Chudnovsky, Eugene M.; Zhang, Xixiang
2018-01-01
Magnetic skyrmions are topologically protected nanoscale spin textures exhibiting fascinating physical behaviors. Recent observations of room temperature skyrmions in sputtered multilayer films are an important step towards their use in ultra-low power devices. Such practical applications prefer skyrmions to be stable at zero magnetic fields and room temperature. Here, we report the creation of skyrmion lattices in Pt/Co/Ta multilayers by a scanning local field using magnetic force microscopy tips. We also show that those newly created skyrmion lattices are stable at both room temperature and zero fields. Lorentz transmission electron microscopy measurements reveal that the skyrmions in our films are of Néel-type. To gain a deeper understanding of the mechanism behind the creation of a skyrmion lattice by the scanning of local fields, we perform micromagnetic simulations and find the experimental results to be in agreement with our simulation data. This study opens another avenue for the creation of skyrmion lattices in thin films.
Zhang, Senfu
2018-03-29
Magnetic skyrmions are topologically protected nanoscale spin textures exhibiting fascinating physical behaviors. Recent observations of room temperature skyrmions in sputtered multilayer films are an important step towards their use in ultra-low power devices. Such practical applications prefer skyrmions to be stable at zero magnetic fields and room temperature. Here, we report the creation of skyrmion lattices in Pt/Co/Ta multilayers by a scanning local field using magnetic force microscopy tips. We also show that those newly created skyrmion lattices are stable at both room temperature and zero fields. Lorentz transmission electron microscopy measurements reveal that the skyrmions in our films are of Néel-type. To gain a deeper understanding of the mechanism behind the creation of a skyrmion lattice by the scanning of local fields, we perform micromagnetic simulations and find the experimental results to be in agreement with our simulation data. This study opens another avenue for the creation of skyrmion lattices in thin films.
Zhang, Senfu; Zhang, Junwei; Zhang, Qiang; Barton, Craig; Neu, Volker; Zhao, Yuelei; Hou, Zhipeng; Wen, Yan; Gong, Chen; Kazakova, Olga; Wang, Wenhong; Peng, Yong; Garanin, Dmitry A.; Chudnovsky, Eugene M.; Zhang, Xixiang
2018-03-01
Magnetic skyrmions are topologically protected nanoscale spin textures exhibiting fascinating physical behaviors. Recent observations of room temperature skyrmions in sputtered multilayer films are an important step towards their use in ultra-low power devices. Such practical applications prefer skyrmions to be stable at zero magnetic fields and room temperature. Here, we report the creation of skyrmion lattices in Pt/Co/Ta multilayers by a scanning local field using magnetic force microscopy tips. We also show that those newly created skyrmion lattices are stable at both room temperature and zero fields. Lorentz transmission electron microscopy measurements reveal that the skyrmions in our films are of Néel-type. To gain a deeper understanding of the mechanism behind the creation of a skyrmion lattice by the scanning of local fields, we perform micromagnetic simulations and find the experimental results to be in agreement with our simulation data. This study opens another avenue for the creation of skyrmion lattices in thin films.
Clark, M. Collins; Coleman, P. Dale; Marder, Barry M.
1993-01-01
A compact device called the split cavity modulator whose self-generated oscillating electromagnetic field converts a steady particle beam into a modulated particle beam. The particle beam experiences both signs of the oscillating electric field during the transit through the split cavity modulator. The modulated particle beam can then be used to generate microwaves at that frequency and through the use of extractors, high efficiency extraction of microwave power is enabled. The modulated beam and the microwave frequency can be varied by the placement of resistive wires at nodes of oscillation within the cavity. The short beam travel length through the cavity permit higher currents because both space charge and pinching limitations are reduced. The need for an applied magnetic field to control the beam has been eliminated.
Tracing crystal-field splittings in the rare-earth-based intermetallic CeIrIn5
Chen, Q. Y.; Wen, C. H. P.; Yao, Q.; Huang, K.; Ding, Z. F.; Shu, L.; Niu, X. H.; Zhang, Y.; Lai, X. C.; Huang, Y. B.; Zhang, G. B.; Kirchner, S.; Feng, D. L.
2018-02-01
Crystal electric field states in rare earth intermetallics show an intricate entanglement with the many-body physics that occurs in these systems and that is known to lead to a plethora of electronic phases. Here we attempt to trace different contributions to the crystal electric field (CEF) splittings in CeIrIn5, a heavy-fermion compound and member of the Ce M In5 (M = Co, Rh, Ir) family. To this end, we utilize high-resolution resonant angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and present a spectroscopic study of the electronic structure of this unconventional superconductor over a wide temperature range. As a result, we show how ARPES can be used in combination with thermodynamic measurements or neutron scattering to disentangle different contributions to the CEF splitting in rare earth intermetallics. We also find that the hybridization is stronger in CeIrIn5 than CeCoIn5 and the effects of the hybridization on the Fermi volume increase is much smaller than predicted. By providing experimental evidence for 4 f7/2 1 splittings which, in CeIrIn5, split the octet into four doublets, we clearly demonstrate the many-body origin of the so-called 4 f7/2 1 state.
Venkateswarlu, R.; Sreenivas, K.
2014-06-01
The LRS Bianchi type-I and type-II string cosmological models are studied when the source for the energy momentum tensor is a bulk viscous stiff fluid containing one dimensional strings together with zero-mass scalar field. We have obtained the solutions of the field equations assuming a functional relationship between metric coefficients when the metric is Bianchi type-I and constant deceleration parameter in case of Bianchi type-II metric. The physical and kinematical properties of the models are discussed in each case. The effects of Viscosity on the physical and kinematical properties are also studied.
High-field torque magnetometry for investigating magnetic anisotropy in Mn12-acetate nanomagnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cornia, Andrea; Affronte, Marco; Gatteschi, Dante; Jansen, Aloysius G.M.; Caneschi, Andrea; Sessoli, Roberta
2001-01-01
The single-molecule superparamagnet [Mn 12 O 12 (OAc) 16 (H 2 O) 4 ]·2AcOH·4H 2 O (Mn 12 -acetate) has attracted considerable attention because it shows exceedingly slow paramagnetic relaxation at low temperature. The cluster has S 4 symmetry in the solid state and comprises four Mn(IV) ions (S=((3)/(2))) and eight Mn(III) ions (S=2) which are magnetically coupled to give an S=10 ground state. The ground manifold is largely split in zero magnetic field and many efforts have been spent to determine the zero-field splitting (zfs) parameters α, β and γ appearing in the fourth-order spin-Hamiltonian H=αS z 2 +βS z 4 +γ(S + 4 +S - 4 )+μ B B·g·S. These are of paramount importance for defining the magnetic anisotropy of the cluster, which in turn determines the slow relaxation of the magnetization and quantum tunneling effects at low temperatures. We want to show that cantilever torque magnetometry in high fields is a suitable technique for determining second- and fourth-order anisotropic contributions in high-spin molecules, such as Mn 12 -acetate. The main advantage of the method lies in its high sensitivity which allows to use very small single crystals. Torque curves have been recorded at 4.2 K by applying the magnetic field (0-28 T) very close to the ab-plane of the tetragonal unit cell. The zfs parameters obtained by this procedure [α=-0.389(5) cm -1 and β=-8.4(5)x10 -4 cm -1 ] are in excellent agreement with those determined by spectroscopic techniques, such as high-frequency EPR and inelastic neutron scattering
Dissipative charged fluid in a magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abbasi, Navid; Davody, Ali, E-mail: davody.phy@gmail.com
2016-05-10
We study the collective excitations in a dissipative charged fluid at zero chemical potential when an external magnetic field is present. While in the absence of magnetic field, four collective excitations appear in the fluid, we find five hydrodynamic modes here. This implies that the magnetic field splits the degeneracy between the transverse shear modes. Using linear response theory, we then compute the retarded response functions. In particular, it turns out that the correlation between charge and the energy fluctuations will no longer vanish, even at zero chemical potential. By use of the response functions, we also derive the relevant Kubo formulas for the transport coefficients.
Method for fitting crystal field parameters and the energy level fitting for Yb3+ in crystal SC2O3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qing-Li, Zhang; Kai-Jie, Ning; Jin, Xiao; Li-Hua, Ding; Wen-Long, Zhou; Wen-Peng, Liu; Shao-Tang, Yin; Hai-He, Jiang
2010-01-01
A method to compute the numerical derivative of eigenvalues of parameterized crystal field Hamiltonian matrix is given, based on the numerical derivatives the general iteration methods such as Levenberg–Marquardt, Newton method, and so on, can be used to solve crystal field parameters by fitting to experimental energy levels. With the numerical eigenvalue derivative, a detailed iteration algorithm to compute crystal field parameters by fitting experimental energy levels has also been described. This method is used to compute the crystal parameters of Yb 3+ in Sc 2 O 3 crystal, which is prepared by a co-precipitation method and whose structure was refined by Rietveld method. By fitting on the parameters of a simple overlap model of crystal field, the results show that the new method can fit the crystal field energy splitting with fast convergence and good stability. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)
Nuclearity, split-property and duality for the Klein-Gordon field in curved spacetime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Verch, R.
1993-05-01
Nuclearity, Split-Property and Duality are establihed for the nets of von Neumann algebras associated with the representations of distinguished states of the massive Klein-Gordon field propagating in particular classes of curved spacetimes. (orig.)
Zero field Quantum Hall Effect in QED3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raya, K; Sánchez-Madrigal, S; Raya, A
2013-01-01
We study analytic structure of the fermion propagator in the Quantum Electrodynamics in 2+1 dimensions (QED3) in the Landau gauge, both in perturbation theory and nonperturbatively, by solving the corresponding Schwinger-Dyson equation in rainbow approximation. In the chiral limit, we found many nodal solutions, which could be interpreted as vacuum excitations. Armed with these solutions, we use the Kubo formula and calculate the filling factor for the zero field Quantum Hall Effect
Unexpected behavior of an order parameter for lattice gauge theories with matter fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meyer, H.
1983-07-01
I consider a slightly modified definition of an order parameter that was recently suggested by DeTar and McLerran. It is supposed to test for confinement in lattice gauge theories when arbitrary matter fields are present, at finite physical temperature β -1 > 0. Its definition is quite directly related to confinement in the sense that no physical states with fractional baryon number can be observed. We test the parameter for different ranges of the coupling constants in the Z(2) Higgs model, whose phase structure is well known at zero temperature. It is found that the order parameter always shows the behavior characteristic of confinement, for all values of the coupling constants and arbitrary nonzero temperature. (orig.)
Study of Events with Identified Forward Particles at the Split Field Magnet
2002-01-01
This experiment will study two aspects of particle production in the forward region : \\item 1) In the recent discovery of charm production in hadronic interactions at the Split Field Magnet, the triggering on strange particles at medium p^t has proven to be a very effective tool for the study of heavy resonances, especially those carrying new flavours like charm and beauty. We want to carry out a more detailed investigation of the production-dynamics of charmed particles, together with a search for beauty mesons and baryons. \\item 2) A trigger on forward particles at high p^t ($>$ 5GeV/c) provides unique features to determine the properties of the parton-parton subprocesses. We want to study the relative contributions of quark, diquark and gluon scattering.\\\\ \\\\ This experimental programme will be carried out, using the improved Split Field Magnet spectrometer (SFM). The different detection systems provide : \\item a) Detection and momentum analysis of charged particles in 4@p solid angle. An improved programm...
Henan Zhao; Bryant, Garnett W; Griffin, Wesley; Terrill, Judith E; Jian Chen
2017-06-01
We designed and evaluated SplitVectors, a new vector field display approach to help scientists perform new discrimination tasks on large-magnitude-range scientific data shown in three-dimensional (3D) visualization environments. SplitVectors uses scientific notation to display vector magnitude, thus improving legibility. We present an empirical study comparing the SplitVectors approach with three other approaches - direct linear representation, logarithmic, and text display commonly used in scientific visualizations. Twenty participants performed three domain analysis tasks: reading numerical values (a discrimination task), finding the ratio between values (a discrimination task), and finding the larger of two vectors (a pattern detection task). Participants used both mono and stereo conditions. Our results suggest the following: (1) SplitVectors improve accuracy by about 10 times compared to linear mapping and by four times to logarithmic in discrimination tasks; (2) SplitVectors have no significant differences from the textual display approach, but reduce cluttering in the scene; (3) SplitVectors and textual display are less sensitive to data scale than linear and logarithmic approaches; (4) using logarithmic can be problematic as participants' confidence was as high as directly reading from the textual display, but their accuracy was poor; and (5) Stereoscopy improved performance, especially in more challenging discrimination tasks.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greene, L.H.; Hentges, P.J.; Aubin, H.; Aprili, M.; Badica, E.; Covington, M.; Pafford, M.M.; Westwood, G.; Klemperer, W.G.; Jian, Sha; Hinks, D.G.
2004-01-01
Quasiparticle planar tunneling spectroscopy is used to study unconventional superconductivity in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 (YBCO) thin films and Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 (BSCCO) single crystals. Tunneling conductances are obtained as a function of crystallographic orientation, applied magnetic field (magnitude and orientation), atomic substitution and surface damage. Our systematic studies confirm that the observed zero-bias conductance peak (ZBCP), a measure of the near-surface quasiparticle (QP) density of states (DoS), is comprised of Andreev bound states (ABS) resulting directly from the sign change of the d-wave order parameter (OP) at the Fermi surface. Our data, plus a literature search, reveals a consistency in the observation of the splitting of the ZBCP in optimally-doped materials. We note that the splitting of the ZBCP observed in applied field, and the spontaneous splitting observed at lower temperatures in zero field, occur concomitantly in a given junction, and that observation of this splitting is dependent upon two parameters: (1) the magnitude of the tunneling cone and (2) the degree of atomic-scale disorder at the interface
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cornia, Andrea E-mail: acornia@unimo.it; Affronte, Marco; Gatteschi, Dante; Jansen, Aloysius G.M.; Caneschi, Andrea; Sessoli, Roberta
2001-05-01
The single-molecule superparamagnet [Mn{sub 12}O{sub 12}(OAc){sub 16}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}]{center_dot}2AcOH{center_dot}4H{sub 2}O (Mn{sub 12}-acetate) has attracted considerable attention because it shows exceedingly slow paramagnetic relaxation at low temperature. The cluster has S{sub 4} symmetry in the solid state and comprises four Mn(IV) ions (S=((3)/(2))) and eight Mn(III) ions (S=2) which are magnetically coupled to give an S=10 ground state. The ground manifold is largely split in zero magnetic field and many efforts have been spent to determine the zero-field splitting (zfs) parameters {alpha}, {beta} and {gamma} appearing in the fourth-order spin-Hamiltonian H={alpha}S{sub z}{sup 2}+{beta}S{sub z}{sup 4}+{gamma}(S{sub +}{sup 4}+S{sub -}{sup 4})+{mu}{sub B}B{center_dot}g{center_dot}S. These are of paramount importance for defining the magnetic anisotropy of the cluster, which in turn determines the slow relaxation of the magnetization and quantum tunneling effects at low temperatures. We want to show that cantilever torque magnetometry in high fields is a suitable technique for determining second- and fourth-order anisotropic contributions in high-spin molecules, such as Mn{sub 12}-acetate. The main advantage of the method lies in its high sensitivity which allows to use very small single crystals. Torque curves have been recorded at 4.2 K by applying the magnetic field (0-28 T) very close to the ab-plane of the tetragonal unit cell. The zfs parameters obtained by this procedure [{alpha}=-0.389(5) cm{sup -1} and {beta}=-8.4(5)x10{sup -4} cm{sup -1}] are in excellent agreement with those determined by spectroscopic techniques, such as high-frequency EPR and inelastic neutron scattering.
Wu, Y. J.; Shen, C.; Tan, Q. H.; Shi, J.; Liu, X. F.; Wu, Z. H.; Zhang, J.; Tan, P. H.; Zheng, H. Z.
2018-04-01
The valley Zeeman splitting of monolayer two-dimensional (2D) materials in the magnetic field plays an important role in the valley and spin manipulations. In general, a high magnetic field (6-65 T) and low temperature (2-30 K) were two key measurement conditions to observe the resolvable valley Zeeman splitting of monolayer 2D materials in current reported experiments. In this study, we experimentally demonstrate an effective measurement scheme by employing magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy, which enables us to distinguish the valley Zeeman splitting under a relatively low magnetic field of 1 T at room temperature. MCD peaks related to both A and B excitonic transitions in monolayer MoS2 can be clearly observed. Based on the MCD spectra under different magnetic fields (-3 to 3 T), we obtained the valley Zeeman splitting energy and the g-factors of A and B excitons, respectively. Our results show that MCD spectroscopy is a high-sensitive magneto-optical technique to explore the valley and spin manipulation in 2D materials.
Simulations of fine structures on the zero field steps of Josephson tunnel junctions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Scheuermann, M.; Chi, C. C.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig
1986-01-01
Fine structures on the zero field steps of long Josephson tunnel junctions are simulated for junctions with the bias current injected into the junction at the edges. These structures are due to the coupling between self-generated plasma oscillations and the traveling fluxon. The plasma oscillations...... are generated by the interaction of the bias current with the fluxon at the junction edges. On the first zero field step, the voltages of successive fine structures are given by Vn=[h-bar]/2e(2omegap/n), where n is an even integer. Applied Physics Letters is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....
New (1+1)-dimension scalar field theories using supersymmetric zeros modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lima Rodrigues, R. de
1994-01-01
New non-liner models are constructed for (1+1)-dimension field theories from supersymmetric zero mode associated to the soliton. The kink simplest case is considered which is the double well potential of the λ φ 4 theory. (author). 3 refs
Muon zero point motion and the hyperfine field in nickel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elzain, M.E.
1984-09-01
It is argued that the effect of zero point motion of muons in Ni is to induce local vibrations of the neighbouring Ni atoms. This local vibration reduces the Hubbard correlation and hence decreases the net spin per atom. This acts back to reduce the hyperfine field at the muon site. (author)
Kondo peak splitting and Kondo dip in single molecular magnet junctions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Niu, Pengbin, E-mail: 120233951@qq.com [Institute of Solid State Physics, Shanxi Datong University, Datong 037009 (China); Shi, Yunlong; Sun, Zhu [Institute of Solid State Physics, Shanxi Datong University, Datong 037009 (China); Nie, Yi-Hang [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Luo, Hong-Gang [Center for Interdisciplinary Studies & Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the MoE, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China)
2016-01-15
Many factors containing bias, spin–orbit coupling, magnetic fields applied, and so on can strongly influence the Kondo effect, and one of the consequences is Kondo peak splitting (KPS). It is natural that KPS should also appear when another spin degree of freedom is involved. In this work we study the KPS effects of single molecular magnets (SMM) coupled with two metallic leads in low-temperature regime. It is found that the Kondo transport properties are strongly influenced by the exchange coupling and anisotropy of the magnetic core. By employing Green's function method in Hubbard operator representation, we give an analytical expression for local retarded Green's function of SMM and discussed its low-temperature transport properties. We find that the anisotropy term behaves as a magnetic field and the splitting behavior of exchange coupling is quite similar to the spin–orbit coupling. These splitting behaviors are explained by introducing inter-level or intra-level transitions, which account for the seven-peak splitting structure. Moreover, we find a Kondo dip at Fermi level under proper parameters. These Kondo peak splitting behaviors in SMM deepen our understanding to Kondo physics and should be observed in the future experiments. - Highlights: • We study Kondo peak splitting in single molecular magnets. • We study Kondo effect by Hubbard operator Green's function method. • We find Kondo peak splitting structures and a Kondo dip at Fermi level. • The exchange coupling and magnetic anisotropy induce fine splitting structure. • The splitting structures are explained by inter-level or intra-level transitions.
Expansion of a zero-order Bessel beam in spheroidal coordinates by generalized Lorenz–Mie theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han, L.; Han, Y.P.; Cui, Z.W.; Wang, J.J.
2014-01-01
An analytic solution to the scattering of the zero-order Bessel beam by a spheroidal particle is constructed on the basis of the generalized Lorenz–Mie theory (GLMT). The spheroidal beam shape coefficients (BSCs) of the zero-order Bessel beam are directly expressed in spheroidal coordinates and computed conveniently using an intrinsic method. Utilizing the tangential continuity of the electromagnetic fields, the expression coefficients of scattered and internal fields are determined. Numerical results concerning scattered field in the far zone are displayed for various parameters of the incident electromagnetic beam and of the scatter. These results are expected to provide useful insights into the scattering of a Bessel beam by spheroidal particles and particle manipulation applications using Bessel beams. - Highlights: • The scattering of zero-order Bessel beam by dielectric spheroid is investigated. • The analytic solution is constructed within the framework of the GLMT. • The spheroidal beam shape coefficients of the zero-order Bessel beam are computed by use an intrinsic method. • Numerical results concerning scattered field are displayed for various parameters
Hearing the zero locus of a magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montgomery, R.
1995-01-01
We investigate the ground state of a two-dimensional quantum particle in a magnetic field where the field vanishes nondegenerately along a closed curve. We show that the ground state concentrates on this curve as e/h tends to infinity, where e is the charge, and that the ground state energy grows like (e/h) 2/3 . These statements are true for any energy level, the level being fixed as the charge tends to infinity. If the magnitude of the gradient of the magnetic field is a constant b 0 along its zero locus, then we get the precise asymptotics (e/h) 2/3 (b 0 ) 2/3 E * + O(1) for every energy level. The constant E * ≅ .5698 is the infimum of the ground state energies E(β) of the anharmonic oscillator family -d 2 /dy 2 + (1/2 y 2 - β) 2 . (orig.)
Progress in establishing a connection between the electromagnetic zero-point field and inertia
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haisch, Bernhard; Rueda, Alfonso
1999-01-01
We report on the progress of a NASA-funded study being carried out at the Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center in Palo Alto and the California State University in Long Beach to investigate the proposed link between the zero-point field of the quantum vacuum and inertia. It is well known that an accelerating observer will experience a bath of radiation resulting from the quantum vacuum which mimics that of a heat bath, the so-called Davies-Unruh effect. We have further analyzed this problem of an accelerated object moving through the vacuum and have shown that the zero-point field will yield a non-zero Poynting vector to an accelerating observer. Scattering of this radiation by the quarks and electrons constituting matter would result in an acceleration-dependent reaction force that would appear to be the origin of inertia of matter (Rueda and Haisch 1998a, 1998b). In the subrelativistic case this inertia reaction force is exactly newtonian and in the relativistic case it exactly reproduces the well known relativistic extension of Newton's Law. This analysis demonstrates then that both the ordinary, F-vector=ma-vector, and the relativistic forms of Newton's equation of motion may be derived from Maxwell's equations as applied to the electromagnetic zero-point field. We expect to be able to extend this analysis in the future to more general versions of the quantum vacuum than just the electromagnetic one discussed herein
Quantum Field Theory at non zero temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alvarez-Estrada, R.
1989-01-01
The formulations of the Φ 4 Quantum Field Theory and of Quantum Electrodynamics in I+d dimensions (d spatial dimensions) at non-zero temperature are reviewed. The behaviours of all those theories in the regime of large distances and high temperatures are surveyed. Only results are reported, all technicalities being omitted. The leading high-temperature contributions to correlation functions, to all perturbative orders, in those theories turn out to be also given by simpler theories, having much milder (superrenormalizable) ultraviolet behaviour and special mass renormalizations. In particular, the triviality/non-triviality issue for the Φ 4 theory in 1+3 dimensions is discussed briefly. (Author)
M-Split: A Graphical User Interface to Analyze Multilayered Anisotropy from Shear Wave Splitting
Abgarmi, Bizhan; Ozacar, A. Arda
2017-04-01
Shear wave splitting analysis are commonly used to infer deep anisotropic structure. For simple cases, obtained delay times and fast-axis orientations are averaged from reliable results to define anisotropy beneath recording seismic stations. However, splitting parameters show systematic variations with back azimuth in the presence of complex anisotropy and cannot be represented by average time delay and fast axis orientation. Previous researchers had identified anisotropic complexities at different tectonic settings and applied various approaches to model them. Most commonly, such complexities are modeled by using multiple anisotropic layers with priori constraints from geologic data. In this study, a graphical user interface called M-Split is developed to easily process and model multilayered anisotropy with capabilities to properly address the inherited non-uniqueness. M-Split program runs user defined grid searches through the model parameter space for two-layer anisotropy using formulation of Silver and Savage (1994) and creates sensitivity contour plots to locate local maximas and analyze all possible models with parameter tradeoffs. In order to minimize model ambiguity and identify the robust model parameters, various misfit calculation procedures are also developed and embedded to M-Split which can be used depending on the quality of the observations and their back-azimuthal coverage. Case studies carried out to evaluate the reliability of the program using real noisy data and for this purpose stations from two different networks are utilized. First seismic network is the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake research institute (KOERI) which includes long term running permanent stations and second network comprises seismic stations deployed temporary as part of the "Continental Dynamics-Central Anatolian Tectonics (CD-CAT)" project funded by NSF. It is also worth to note that M-Split is designed as open source program which can be modified by users for
Vertically coupled double quantum rings at zero magnetic field
Malet, Francesc; Barranco, Manuel; Lipparini, Enrico; Pi, Ricardo Mayol Martí; Climente, Juan Ignacio; Planelles, Josep
2006-01-01
Within local-spin-density functional theory, we have investigated the `dissociation' of few-electron circular vertical semiconductor double quantum ring artificial molecules at zero magnetic field as a function of inter-ring distance. In a first step, the molecules are constituted by two identical quantum rings. When the rings are quantum mechanically strongly coupled, the electronic states are substantially delocalized, and the addition energy spectra of the artificial molecule resemble thos...
Removal of uranium from uranium plant wastewater using zero-valent iron in an ultrasonic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Jing; Zhang, Libo; Peng, Jinhui; Ma, Aiyuan; Xia, Hong Ying; Guo, Wen Qian; Yu, Xia [Yunnan Provincial Key Laboratory of Intensification Metallurgy, Kunming (China); Hu, Jinming; Yang, Lifeng [Nuclear Group Two Seven Two Uranium Industry Limited Liability Company, Hengyang (China)
2016-06-15
Uranium removal from uranium plant wastewater using zero-valent iron in an ultrasonic field was investigated. Batch experiments designed by the response surface methodology (RSM) were conducted to study the effects of pH, ultrasonic reaction time, and dosage of zero-valent iron on uranium removal efficiency. From the experimental data obtained in this work, it was found that the ultrasonic method employing zero-valent iron powder effectively removes uranium from uranium plant wastewater with a uranium concentration of 2,772.23 μg/L. The pH ranges widely from 3 to 7 in the ultrasonic field, and the prediction model obtained by the RSM has good agreement with the experimental results.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Holloway, Christopher L., E-mail: holloway@boulder.nist.gov; Gordon, Joshua A. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Electromagnetics Division, U.S. Department of Commerce, Boulder Laboratories, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Schwarzkopf, Andrew; Anderson, David A.; Miller, Stephanie A.; Thaicharoen, Nithiwadee; Raithel, Georg [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)
2014-06-16
We present a technique for measuring radio-frequency (RF) electric field strengths with sub-wavelength resolution. We use Rydberg states of rubidium atoms to probe the RF field. The RF field causes an energy splitting of the Rydberg states via the Autler-Townes effect, and we detect the splitting via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We use this technique to measure the electric field distribution inside a glass cylinder with applied RF fields at 17.04 GHz and 104.77 GHz. We achieve a spatial resolution of ≈100 μm, limited by the widths of the laser beams utilized for the EIT spectroscopy. We numerically simulate the fields in the glass cylinder and find good agreement with the measured fields. Our results suggest that this technique could be applied to image fields on a small spatial scale over a large range of frequencies, up into the sub-terahertz regime.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Ruiqiang; Jiang Kaiming
2010-01-01
We adopt the nonequilibrium Green's function method to theoretically study the Kondo effect in a deformed molecule, which is treated as an electron-phonon interaction (EPI) system. The self-energy for phonon part is calculated in the standard many-body diagrammatic expansion up to the second order in EPI strength. We find that the multiple phonon-assisted Kondo satellites arise besides the usual Kondo resonance. In the antiparallel magnetic configuration the splitting of main Kondo peak and phonon-assisted satellites only happen for asymmetrical dot-lead couplings, but it is free from the symmetry for the parallel magnetic configuration. The EPI strength and vibrational frequency can enhance the spin splitting of both main Kondo and satellites. It is shown that the suppressed zero-bias Kondo resonance can be restored by applying an external magnetic field, whose magnitude is dependent on the phononic effect remarkably. Although the asymmetry in tunnel coupling has no contribution to the restoration of spin splitting of Kondo peak, it can shrink the external field needed to switch tunneling magnetoresistance ratio between large negative dip and large positive peak. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)
Moore, Christopher; Stanescu, Tudor D.; Tewari, Sumanta
2018-04-01
We show that a pair of overlapping Majorana bound states (MBSs) forming a partially separated Andreev bound state (ps-ABS) represents a generic low-energy feature in spin-orbit-coupled semiconductor-superconductor (SM-SC) hybrid nanowire in the presence of a Zeeman field. The ps-ABS interpolates continuously between the "garden variety" ABS, which consists of two MBSs sitting on top of each other, and the topologically protected Majorana zero modes (MZMs), which are separated by a distance given by the length of the wire. The really problematic ps-ABSs consist of component MBSs separated by a distance of the order of the characteristic Majorana decay length ξ , and have nearly zero energy in a significant range of control parameters, such as the Zeeman field and chemical potential, within the topologically trivial phase. Despite being topologically trivial, such ps-ABSs can generate signatures identical to MZMs in local charge tunneling experiments. In particular, the height of the zero-bias conductance peak (ZBCP) generated by ps-ABSs has the quantized value 2 e2/h , and it can remain unchanged in an extended range of experimental parameters, such as Zeeman field and the tunnel barrier height. We illustrate the formation of such low-energy robust ps-ABSs in two experimentally relevant situations: a hybrid SM-SC system consisting of a proximitized nanowire coupled to a quantum dot and the SM-SC system in the presence of a spatially varying inhomogeneous potential. We then show that, unlike local measurements, a two-terminal experiment involving charge tunneling at both ends of the wire is capable of distinguishing between the generic ps-ABSs and the non-Abelian MZMs. While the MZMs localized at the opposite ends of the wire generate correlated differential conduction spectra, including correlations in energy splittings and critical Zeeman fields associated with the emergence of the ZBCPs, such correlations are absent if the ZBCPs are due to ps-ABSs emerging in the
Quenched BK-parameter from Osterwalder-Seiler tmQCD quarks and mass-splitting discretization effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dimopoulos, P.; Simma, H.; Vladikas, A.
2009-01-01
We apply an Osterwalder-Seiler version of twisted mass QCD to a study of the B K parameter, in which three of the four quark fields making up the relevant ΔS = 2 operator are maximally twisted with the same twist angle, while the fourth one has a twist angle of opposite sign. It is known that this setup ensures automatic improvement of the bare K 0 -K-bar 0 operator matrix element and multiplicative renormalization of the ΔS = 2 operator, at the price of breaking the K 0 -K-bar 0 mass degeneracy by discretization effects. As a result, two dominant systematic errors of the B K determination with Wilson fermions are kept under control. With the Clover term included in the fermion action, we perform a feasibility study and find, in the quenched approximation, a significant improvement of the scaling behaviour of B K , compared to earlier standard tmQCD determinations. Moreover, we study in detail the K 0 -K-bar 0 mass splitting that characterizes this approach and confirm that, in the presence of the Clover term, it is greatly reduced in a maximally twisted theory.
NEUTRON-PROTON EFFECTIVE RANGE PARAMETERS AND ZERO-ENERGY SHAPE DEPENDENCE.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
HACKENBURG, R.W.
2005-06-01
A completely model-independent effective range theory fit to available, unpolarized, np scattering data below 3 MeV determines the zero-energy free proton cross section {sigma}{sub 0} = 20.4287 {+-} 0.0078 b, the singlet apparent effective range r{sub s} = 2.754 {+-} 0.018{sub stat} {+-} 0.056{sub syst} fm, and improves the error slightly on the parahydrogen coherent scattering length, a{sub c} = -3.7406 {+-} 0.0010 fm. The triplet and singlet scattering lengths and the triplet mixed effective range are calculated to be a{sub t} = 5.4114 {+-} 0.0015 fm, a{sub s} = -23.7153 {+-} 0.0043 fm, and {rho}{sub t}(0,-{epsilon}{sub t}) = 1.7468 {+-} 0.0019 fm. The model-independent analysis also determines the zero-energy effective ranges by treating them as separate fit parameters without the constraint from the deuteron binding energy {epsilon}{sub t}. These are determined to be {rho}{sub t}(0,0) = 1.705 {+-} 0.023 fm and {rho}{sub s}(0,0) = 2.665 {+-} 0.056 fm. This determination of {rho}{sub t}(0,0) and {rho}{sub s}(0,0) is most sensitive to the sparse data between about 20 and 600 keV, where the correlation between the determined values of {rho}{sub t}(0,0) and {rho}{sub s}(0,0) is at a minimum. This correlation is responsible for the large systematic error in r{sub s}. More precise data in this range are needed. The present data do not event determine (with confidence) that {rho}{sub t}(0,0) {ne} {rho}{sub t}(0, -{epsilon}{sub t}), referred to here as ''zero-energy shape dependence''. The widely used measurement of {sigma}{sub 0} = 20.491 {+-} 0.014 b from W. Dilg, Phys. Rev. C 11, 103 (1975), is argued to be in error.
Zero energy gauge fields and the phases of a gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guendelman, E.I.
1990-01-01
A new approach to the definition of the phases of a Poincare invariant gauge theory is developed. It is based on the role of gauge transformations that change the asymptotic value of the gauge fields from zero to a constant. In the context of theories without Higgs fields, this symmetry can be spontaneously broken when the gauge fields are massless particles, explicitly broken when the gauge fields develop a mass. Finally, the vacuum can be invariant under this transformation, this last case can be achieved when the theory has a violent infrared behavior, which in some theories can be connected to a confinement mechanism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gnutek, P; Rudowicz, C; Yang, Z Y
2009-01-01
The local structure and the spin Hamiltonian (SH) parameters, including the zero-field-splitting (ZFS) parameters D and (a+2F/3), and the Zeeman g factors g || and g perpendicular , are theoretically investigated for the Fe K 3+ -O I 2- center in KTaO 3 crystal. The microscopic SH (MSH) parameters are modeled within the framework of the crystal field (CF) theory employing the CF analysis (CFA) package, which also incorporates the MSH modules. Our approach takes into account the spin-orbit interaction as well as the spin-spin and spin-other-orbit interactions omitted in previous studies. The superposition model (SPM) calculations are carried out to provide input CF parameters for the CFA/MSH package. The combined SPM-CFA/MSH approach is used to consider various structural models for the Fe K 3+ -O I 2- defect center in KTaO 3 . This modeling reveals that the off-center displacement of the Fe 3+ ions, Δ 1 (Fe 3+ ), combined with an inward relaxation of the nearest oxygen ligands, Δ 2 (O 2- ), and the existence of the interstitial oxygen O I 2- give rise to a strong tetragonal crystal field. This finding may explain the large ZFS experimentally observed for the Fe K 3+ -O I 2- center in KTaO 3 . Matching the theoretical MSH predictions with the available structural data as well as electron magnetic resonance (EMR) and optical spectroscopy data enables predicting reasonable ranges of values of Δ 1 (Fe 3+ ) and Δ 2 (O 2- ) as well as the possible location of O I 2- ligands around Fe 3+ ions in KTaO 3 . The defect structure model obtained using the SPM-CFA/MSH approach reproduces very well the ranges of the experimental SH parameters D, g || and g perpendicular and importantly yields not only the correct magnitude of D but also the sign, unlike previous studies. More reliable predictions may be achieved when experimental data on (a+2F/3) and/or crystal field energy levels become available. Comparison of our results with those arising from alternative models existing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bao Shanxia; Yang Wenguang; Zhang Hao; Zhang Linjie; Zhao Jianming; Jia Suotang
2015-01-01
We investigate the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) of 133 Cs vapor at the room temperature in a magnetic field. In a cascade three-level system involved Rydberg state, two collinearly counter-propagating and orthogonally linear-polarized laser fields act on cascaded two transitions, 6S 1/2 → 6P 3/2 and 6P 3/2 ↔ 47D 5/2 , respectively. The EIT window become broadening and split into several sub-EIT windows when the magnetic field is applied. The dependences of splitting shape and intervals of sub-EIT windows on magnetic field are measured experimentally and compared with the theoretical calculation considering the different magnetic effects on ground state, low excited state and Rydberg state. The splitting intervals of sub-EIT windows are well consistent with theoretical calculation. (author)
Rasskazov, Andrey; Chertovskih, Roman; Zheligovsky, Vladislav
2018-04-01
We introduce six families of three-dimensional space-periodic steady solenoidal flows, whose kinetic helicity density is zero at any point. Four families are analytically defined. Flows in four families have zero helicity spectrum. Sample flows from five families are used to demonstrate numerically that neither zero kinetic helicity density nor zero helicity spectrum prohibit generation of large-scale magnetic field by the two most prominent dynamo mechanisms: the magnetic α -effect and negative eddy diffusivity. Our computations also attest that such flows often generate small-scale field for sufficiently small magnetic molecular diffusivity. These findings indicate that kinetic helicity and helicity spectrum are not the quantities controlling the dynamo properties of a flow regardless of whether scale separation is present or not.
Optimal space-energy splitting in MCNP with the DSA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dubi, A.; Gurvitz, N.
1990-01-01
The Direct Statistical Approach (DSA) particle transport theory is based on the possibility of obtaining exact explicit expressions for the dependence of the second moment and calculation time on the splitting parameters. This allows the automatic optimization of the splitting parameters by ''learning'' the bulk parameters from which the problem dependent coefficients of the quality function (second moment time) are constructed. The above procedure was exploited to implement an automatic optimization of the splitting parameters in the Monte Carlo Neutron Photon (MCNP) code. This was done in a number of steps. In the first instance, only spatial surface splitting was considered. In this step, the major obstacle has been the truncation of an infinite series of ''products'' of ''surface path's'' leading from the source to the detector. Encouraging results from the first phase led to the inclusion of full space/energy phase space splitting. (author)
Degasperis, A.; Lebedev, D.; Olshanetsky, M.; Pakuliak, S.; Perelomov, A.; Santini, P. M.
1992-11-01
The simplest generalization of the intermediate long-wave hierarchy (ILW) is considered to show how to extend the Zakharov-Shabat dressing method to nonlocal, i.e., integro-partial differential, equations. The purpose is to give a procedure of constructing the zero-curvature representation of this class of equations. This result obtains by combining the Drinfeld-Sokolov formalism together with the introduction of an operator-valued spectral parameter, namely, a spectral parameter that does not commute with the space variable x. This extension provides a connection between the ILWk hierarchy and the Saveliev-Vershik continuum graded Lie algebras. In the case of ILW2 the Fairlie-Zachos sinh-algebra was found.
Crystal field splitting in CePt{sub 5}. Magnetic analysis and Raman spectroscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zinner, Martin; Praetorius, Christian; Fauth, Kai [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Experimentelle Physik II, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Halbig, Benedikt; Bass, Utz; Geurts, Jean [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Experimentelle Physik III, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany)
2015-07-01
The crystal electric field (CF) is an essential factor determining the paramagnetic response of rare earth ions in solids. In Ce intermetallics, Kondo screening can additionally modify the magnetic behavior and it may then prove difficult to disentangle the two. In the hexagonal surface intermetallic CePt{sub 5}, grown on Pt(111), we find two distinct sets of CF parameters which both account rather well for the anisotropic magnetic susceptibility and its temperature dependence. Different strengths of Kondo screening have to be assumed in the two cases in order to obtain quantitative agreement with experimental results. Discriminating between the two solutions requires an independent determination of the CF splitting. We shall report on our attempts to obtain this information from electronic Raman scattering. Raman signal is indeed even obtained from CePt{sub 5} specimens with a thickness of just two unit cells. We shall discuss the identification of electronic Raman losses by comparison with LaPt{sub 5} as well as the dependence of the Raman features on temperature and thickness of the intermetallic film.
Measures of the zero power nuclear reactor's kinetic parameters with application of noise analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martins, F.R.
1992-01-01
The purpose of this work was to establish an experimental technique based on noise analysis for measuring the ratio of kinetic parameters β/ Λ and the power of the Zero Power Nuclear Reactor IPEN-MB 01. A through study of the microscopic and macroscopic noise analysis techniques has been carried out. The Langevin technique and the point kinetic model were chosen to describe the stochastic phenomena that occur in the zero power reactor. Measurements have been made using two compensated ionization chambers localized in the water reflector at symmetric positions in order to minimize spatial effects on the neutron flux fluctuation. Power calibrations based on the low frequency plateau of the cross-power spectral density has also been carried out. (author)
Geometrical splitting in Monte Carlo
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dubi, A.; Elperin, T.; Dudziak, D.J.
1982-01-01
A statistical model is presented by which a direct statistical approach yielded an analytic expression for the second moment, the variance ratio, and the benefit function in a model of an n surface-splitting Monte Carlo game. In addition to the insight into the dependence of the second moment on the splitting parameters the main importance of the expressions developed lies in their potential to become a basis for in-code optimization of splitting through a general algorithm. Refs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lange, Simon Lehnskov; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Hoffmann, Matthias
2016-01-01
We present here a novel design for a coupled split ring resonator antenna optimized for time-domain electric field enhancement in the 0.1 to 1 terahertz (THz) range. The antenna is designed to be sensitive to the incident field polarization and seeks to avoid metal damage due to electron bombardm...
Zhang, Chuang; Sun, Dali; Yu, Zhi-Gang; Sheng, Chuan-Xiang; McGill, Stephen; Semenov, Dmitry; Vardeny, Zeev Valy
2018-04-01
The organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites show excellent optical and electrical properties for photovoltaic and a myriad of other optoelectronics applications. Using high-field magneto-optical measurements up to 17.5 T at cryogenic temperatures, we have studied the spin-dependent optical transitions in the prototype C H3N H3Pb I3 , which are manifested in the field-induced circularly polarized photoluminescence emission. The energy splitting between left and right circularly polarized emission bands is measured to be ˜1.5 meV at 17.5 T, from which we obtained an exciton effective g factor of ˜1.32. Also from the photoluminescence diamagnetic shift we estimate the exciton binding energy to be ˜17 meV at low temperature. Surprisingly, the corresponding field-induced circular polarization is "anomalous" in that the photoluminescence emission of the higher split energy band is stronger than that of the lower split band. This "reversed" intensity ratio originates from the combination of long electron spin relaxation time and hole negative g factor in C H3N H3Pb I3 , which are in agreement with a model based on the k.p effective-mass approximation.
Spin Splitting in Different Semiconductor Quantum Wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hao Yafei
2012-01-01
We theoretically investigate the spin splitting in four undoped asymmetric quantum wells in the absence of external electric field and magnetic field. The quantum well geometry dependence of spin splitting is studied with the Rashba and the Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling included. The results show that the structure of quantum well plays an important role in spin splitting. The Rashba and the Dresselhaus spin splitting in four asymmetric quantum wells are quite different. The origin of the distinction is discussed in this work. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)
Random tree growth by vertex splitting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
David, F; Dukes, W M B; Jonsson, T; Stefánsson, S Ö
2009-01-01
We study a model of growing planar tree graphs where in each time step we separate the tree into two components by splitting a vertex and then connect the two pieces by inserting a new link between the daughter vertices. This model generalizes the preferential attachment model and Ford's α-model for phylogenetic trees. We develop a mean field theory for the vertex degree distribution, prove that the mean field theory is exact in some special cases and check that it agrees with numerical simulations in general. We calculate various correlation functions and show that the intrinsic Hausdorff dimension can vary from 1 to ∞, depending on the parameters of the model
Primary decomposition of zero-dimensional ideals over finite fields
Gao, Shuhong; Wan, Daqing; Wang, Mingsheng
2009-03-01
A new algorithm is presented for computing primary decomposition of zero-dimensional ideals over finite fields. Like Berlekamp's algorithm for univariate polynomials, the new method is based on the invariant subspace of the Frobenius map acting on the quotient algebra. The dimension of the invariant subspace equals the number of primary components, and a basis of the invariant subspace yields a complete decomposition. Unlike previous approaches for decomposing multivariate polynomial systems, the new method does not need primality testing nor any generic projection, instead it reduces the general decomposition problem directly to root finding of univariate polynomials over the ground field. Also, it is shown how Groebner basis structure can be used to get partial primary decomposition without any root finding.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Seitl, Stanislav; Veselý, V.; Řoutil, L.
2011-01-01
Roč. 89, 21-22 (2011), s. 1852-1858 ISSN 0045-7949. [International Conference on Civil, Structural and Enviromental Engineering Computing /12./. Funchal, Madeira, 01.09.2009-04.09.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Wedge splitting test * Stress intensity factor * T-stress * Numerical simulation * Direct method Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.874, year: 2011
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhou Yan; Bonetti, S; Zha, C L; Akerman, Johan [Department of Microelectronics and Applied Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, 164 40 Kista (Sweden)], E-mail: zhouyan@kth.se
2009-10-15
Using nonlinear system theory and numerical simulations, we map out the static and dynamic phase diagrams in the zero applied field of a spin torque nano device with a tilted polarizer (TP). We find that for sufficiently large currents, even very small tilt angles ({beta}>1 deg.) will lead to steady free layer precession in zero field. Within a rather large range of tilt angles, 1 deg. <{beta}<19 deg., we find coexisting static states and hysteretic switching between these using only current. In a more narrow window (1 deg. <{beta}<5 deg.) one of the static states turns into a limit cycle (precession). The coexistence of current-driven static and dynamic states in the zero magnetic field is unique to the TP device and leads to large hysteresis in the upper and lower threshold currents for its operation. The nano device with TP can facilitate the generation of large amplitude mode of spin torque signals without the need for cumbersome magnetic field sources and thus should be very important for future telecommunication applications based on spin transfer torque effects.
EPR and optical study of Mn{sup 2+} doped monohydrated dipotassium stannic chloride
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kripal, Ram, E-mail: ram_kripal2001@rediffmail.com; Singh, Manju
2014-11-15
Highlights: • EPR study of Mn{sup 2+}: DPSC crystal is done at room temperature. • The spin Hamiltonian parameters for two Mn{sup 2+} sites are determined. • The optical absorption study is also done. • The nature of metal–ligand bonding is discussed on the basis of EPR and optical data. • Theoretical zero-field splitting parameters match well with the experimental values. - Abstract: Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study at room temperature (RT) is used to investigate the property of Mn{sup 2+} doped monohydrated dipotassium stannic chloride (K{sub 2}SnCl{sub 4}⋅H{sub 2}O) single crystal. EPR spectra show that there exist two substitutional sites, the spin Hamiltonian parameters for which are determined. The optical absorption study is also done at room temperature in the wavelength range 195–1100 nm. The observed bands are assigned as transitions from {sup 6}A{sub 1g}(S) ground state to various excited states. These bands are fitted with four parameters, namely Racah inter-electronic repulsion parameters B = 792 cm{sup −1}, C = 2278 cm{sup −1}; cubic crystal field splitting parameter Dq = 700 cm{sup −1} and Trees correction α = 76 cm{sup −1}. The nature of metal–ligand bonding is discussed on the basis of EPR and optical data. Superposition model (SPM) is used to find out the crystal field (CF) parameters and the perturbation formulae are used to obtain zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameters. Theoretically calculated ZFS parameters match well with the experimental values obtained from EPR study.
Zero tillage: A potential technology to improve cotton yield
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abbas Hafiz Ghazanfar
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Zero tillage technology revealed with no use of any soil inverting technique to grow crops. The crop plant seed is planted in the soil directly after irrigation to make the soil soft without any replenishing in soil layers. A study was conducted to evaluate cotton genotypes FH-114 and FH-142 for the consecutive three years of growing seasons from 2013-15. The seed of both genotypes was sown with two date of sowing, 1 March and 1 May of each three years of sowing under three tillage treatments (zero tillage, minimum tillage and conventional tillage in triplicate completely randomized split-split plot design. It was found from results that significant differences were recorded for tillage treatments, date of sowing, genotypes and their interactions. Multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate the yield and it attributed traits for potential of FH-114 and FH-142 cotton genotypes. The genotype FH-142 was found with higher and batter performance as compared to FH-114 under zero tillage, minimum tillage and conventional tillage techniques. The traits bolls per plant, boll weight, fibre fineness, fibre strength, plant height, cotton yield per plant and sympodial branches per plant were found as most contributing traits towards cotton yield and production. It was also found that FH-142 gives higher output in terms of economic gain under zero tillage with 54% increase as compared to conventional tillage technique. It was suggested that zero tillage technology should be adopted to improve cotton yield and quality. It was also recommended that further study to evaluate zero tillage as potential technology should be performed with different regions, climate and timing throughout the world.
Crystal-field and Nd-Mn exchange interaction in Nd{sub 2/3}Ca{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beznosov, A; Fertman, E; Desnenko, V; Loginov, A [B Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, NASU, 47 Lenin Ave., 61103 Kharkov (Ukraine); Feher, A; Kajnakova, M, E-mail: fertman@ilt.kharkov.u [Centre of Low Temperature Physics of the Faculty of Science of P.J. Safarik University and IEP SAS, Park Angelinum 9, SK-04154 Kotice (Slovakia)
2010-01-01
A study of the low field magnetization and specific heat in magnetic fields up to 9 T of Nd{sub 2/3}Ca{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} perovskite in the 2-30 K temperature range has been done. All the specific heat data show broadened Schottky-like anomaly below 20 K. We suppose that such a behavior originates from the Nd magnetic ordering caused by the splitting of the Nd{sup 3+} ions ground-state doublet (GSD) in the effective molecular field H{sub ex} of Mn spin system supplemented by an applied external magnetic field. The zero field GSD splitting is an evidence of a strong exchange coupling between Nd and Mn magnetic subsystems. The Nd-ions magnetic ordering introduces an additional contribution to the ferromagnetic moment producing anomalies of the field-cooled and zero-field-cooled magnetizations of the system below 28 K. The broadened Schottky-like anomalies found are fitted for every field by a set of three Schottky functions. Applied magnetic field extends the anomaly region and shifts it to the higher temperatures. Splitting of the higher crystal field Kramers doublets gives an additional contribution to the heat capacity under magnetic fields. The GSD g-factors g{sub ||} and g{sub p}erpendicular was estimated as 3.4 and 2.2, respectively, and H{sub ex} as 9 T.
Wang, Tongyue; Han, Jeong Joon; Oh, Hee-Kyun; Park, Hong-Ju; Jung, Seunggon; Park, Yeong-Joon; Kook, Min-Suk
2016-07-01
This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with bad splits during sagittal split ramus osteotomy by using three-dimensional computed tomography. This study included 8 bad splits and 47 normal patients without bad splits. Mandibular anatomic parameters related to osteotomy line were measured. These included anteroposterior width of the ramus at level of lingula, distance between external oblique ridge and lingula, distance between sigmoid notch and inferior border of mandible, mandibular angle, distance between inferior outer surface of mandibular canal and inferior border of mandible under distal root of second molar (MCEM), buccolingual thickness of the ramus at level of lingula, and buccolingual thickness of the area just distal to first molar (BTM1) and second molar (BTM2). The incidence of bad splits in 625 sagittal split osteotomies was 1.28%. Compared with normal group, bad split group exhibited significantly thinner BTM2 and shorter sigmoid notch and inferior border of mandible (P bad splits. These anatomic data may help surgeons to choose the safest surgical techniques and best osteotomy sites.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perez, C; De la Rosa, M I; Gruetzmacher, K, E-mail: concha@opt.uva.e [Universidad de Valladolid, Facultad de Ciencias, 47071 Valladolid (Spain)
2010-05-01
Doppler-free two-photon optogalvanic spectroscopy has been applied to measure the strong electric field strength and the cathode fall characteristics of hollow cathode discharges operated in hydrogen and deuterium via the Stark splitting of the 2S level of atomic hydrogen isotopes. In this paper we show similarities and differences in the tendencies of the cathode fall characteristics of hydrogen and deuterium in a wide range of identical discharge parameters.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perez, C; De la Rosa, M I; Gruetzmacher, K
2010-01-01
Doppler-free two-photon optogalvanic spectroscopy has been applied to measure the strong electric field strength and the cathode fall characteristics of hollow cathode discharges operated in hydrogen and deuterium via the Stark splitting of the 2S level of atomic hydrogen isotopes. In this paper we show similarities and differences in the tendencies of the cathode fall characteristics of hydrogen and deuterium in a wide range of identical discharge parameters.
Zero and finite field μSR spin glass Ag:Mn
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, J.A.; Heffner, R.H.; Leon, M.; Olsen, C.E.; Schillaci, M.E.; Dodds, S.A.; Estle, T.L.; MacLaughlin, D.E.
1981-01-01
In this paper we present μSR data taken in both zero and finite fields for a Ag:Mn (1.6 at%) spin glass sample. The data allow us to determine, in the context of a particular model, the fluctuation rate of the Mn ions as a function of temperature. This rate decreases smoothly but very rapidly near the glass temperature, Tsub(g). The corresponding behavior in Cu:Mn is more gradual. (orig.)
Split Dirac Supersymmetry: An Ultraviolet Completion of Higgsino Dark Matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fox, Patrick J. [Fermilab; Kribs, Graham D. [Oregon U.; Martin, Adam [Notre Dame U.
2014-10-07
Motivated by the observation that the Higgs quartic coupling runs to zero at an intermediate scale, we propose a new framework for models of split supersymmetry, in which gauginos acquire intermediate scale Dirac masses of $\\sim 10^{8-11}$ GeV. Scalar masses arise from one-loop finite contributions as well as direct gravity-mediated contributions. Like split supersymmetry, one Higgs doublet is fine-tuned to be light. The scale at which the Dirac gauginos are introduced to make the Higgs quartic zero is the same as is necessary for gauge coupling unification. Thus, gauge coupling unification persists (nontrivially, due to adjoint multiplets), though with a somewhat higher unification scale $\\gtrsim 10^{17}$ GeV. The $\\mu$-term is naturally at the weak scale, and provides an opportunity for experimental verification. We present two manifestations of Split Dirac Supersymmetry. In the "Pure Dirac" model, the lightest Higgsino must decay through R-parity violating couplings, leading to an array of interesting signals in colliders. In the "Hypercharge Impure" model, the bino acquires a Majorana mass that is one-loop suppressed compared with the Dirac gluino and wino. This leads to weak scale Higgsino dark matter whose overall mass scale, as well as the mass splitting between the neutral components, is naturally generated from the same UV dynamics. We outline the challenges to discovering pseudo-Dirac Higgsino dark matter in collider and dark matter detection experiments.
Quantum Quench Dynamics in the Transverse Field Ising Model at Non-zero Temperatures
Abeling, Nils; Kehrein, Stefan
The recently discovered Dynamical Phase Transition denotes non-analytic behavior in the real time evolution of quantum systems in the thermodynamic limit and has been shown to occur in different systems at zero temperature [Heyl et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 135704 (2013)]. In this talk we present the extension of the analysis to non-zero temperature by studying a generalized form of the Loschmidt echo, the work distribution function, of a quantum quench in the transverse field Ising model. Although the quantitative behavior at non-zero temperatures still displays features derived from the zero temperature non-analyticities, it is shown that in this model dynamical phase transitions do not exist if T > 0 . This is a consequence of the system being initialized in a thermal state. Moreover, we elucidate how the Tasaki-Crooks-Jarzynski relation can be exploited as a symmetry relation for a global quench or to obtain the change of the equilibrium free energy density. This work was supported through CRC SFB 1073 (Project B03) of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG).
Two-nucleon S10 amplitude zero in chiral effective field theory
Sánchez, M. Sánchez; Yang, C.-J.; Long, Bingwei; van Kolck, U.
2018-02-01
We present a new rearrangement of short-range interactions in the S10 nucleon-nucleon channel within chiral effective field theory. This is intended to address the slow convergence of Weinberg's scheme, which we attribute to its failure to reproduce the amplitude zero (scattering momentum ≃340 MeV) at leading order. After the power counting scheme is modified to accommodate the zero at leading order, it includes subleading corrections perturbatively in a way that is consistent with renormalization-group invariance. Systematic improvement is shown at next-to-leading order, and we obtain results that fit empirical phase shifts remarkably well all the way up to the pion-production threshold. An approach in which pions have been integrated out is included, which allows us to derive analytic results that also fit phenomenology surprisingly well.
Split coil made of (RE)BCO pancake coils for IC(B) anisotropy measurements of superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frolek, L; Pardo, E; Gömöry, F; Šouc, J; Pitel, J
2014-01-01
Measurement of the I c (B) anisotropy is standard characterization of superconducting tapes, wires or cables. This contribution presents a split coil consisting on two superconducting pancake coils in order to generate the magnetic field necessary for this kind of measurement. Both coils were made using (RE)BCO – based second generation (2G) coated conductor tape with cross section 0.1 mm × 12 mm. The individual turns of the tape were insulated by a fiberglass tape without impregnation. These coils have identical inner and outer diameter and number of turns. Their inner and outer diameters are 50 mm and 80 mm, respectively, and they have 62 turns. The length of conductor in each coil is approximately 13 m. The distance between both pancake coils is 22 mm. Individual coils and the complete split coil were characterized in liquid nitrogen bath. Their parameters, like the critical currents, E(I) characteristics and magnetic field of complete split coil, were measured and interpreted. The split coil can be used up to magnetic fields of 210 mT. The length between the potential taps on the sample can be up to 20 mm, while the magnetic field decrease is lower than 1% on this length.
Biotropic parameters of magnetic fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shishlo, M.A.
The use of magnetic fields (MF) in biology and medicine to control biological systems has led to appearance of the term, biotropic parameters of MF. They include the physical characteristics of MF, which determine the primary biologically significant physicochemical mechanisms of field action causing formation of corresponding reactions on the level of the integral organism. These parameters include MF intensity, gradient, vector, pulse frequency and shape, and duration of exposure. Factors that elicit responses by the biological system include such parameter of MF interaction with the integral organism as localization of exposure and volume of tissues interacting with the field, as well as the initial state of the organism. In essence, the findings of experimental studies of biotropic parameters of MF make it possible to control physiological processes and will aid in optimizing methods of MF therapy.
Somogyi, O; Meskó, A; Csorba, L; Szabó, P; Zelkó, R
2017-08-30
The division of tablets and adequate methods of splitting them are a complex problem in all sectors of health care. Although tablet-splitting is often required, this procedure can be difficult for patients. Four tablets were investigated with different external features (shape, score-line, film-coat and size). The influencing effect of these features and the splitting methods was investigated according to the precision and "weight loss" of splitting techniques. All four types of tablets were halved by four methods: by hand, with a kitchen knife, with an original manufactured splitting device and with a modified tablet splitter based on a self-developed mechanical model. The mechanical parameters (harness and friability) of the products were measured during the study. The "weight loss" and precision of splitting methods were determined and compared by statistical analysis. On the basis of the results, the external features (geometry), the mechanical parameters of tablets and the mechanical structure of splitting devices can influence the "weight loss" and precision of tablet-splitting. Accordingly, a new decision-making scheme was developed for the selection of splitting methods. In addition, the skills of patients and the specialties of therapy should be considered so that pharmaceutical counselling can be more effective regarding tablet-splitting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Crystal-field splitting in coadsorbate systems: c (2x2) CO/K/Ni (100)
Hasselström, J.; Föhlisch, A.; Denecke, R.; Nilsson, A.; Groot, F.M.F. de
2000-01-01
It is demonstrated how the crystal field splitting (CFS) fine structure can be used to characterize a coadsor-bate system. We have applied K 2p x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to the c(2x2) CO/K/Ni(100) system. The CFS fine structure is shown to be sensitive to the the local atomic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tinto, Massimo; Larson, Shane L
2005-01-01
We derive a time-delay interferometric (TDI) combination that has zero-response to a gravitational wave signal. This combination, which we have called the zero-signal solution, is a two-parameter family of linear combinations of the generators of the TDI space that has null gravitational wave response when its two parameters coincide with the values of the angles of the source location in the sky. Remarkably, the zero-signal solution does not rely on any assumptions about the gravitational waveform, and in fact it works for waveforms of any kind
Light-front zero-mode contribution to the Ward Identity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sales, J.H.O.; Suzuki, A.T.
2010-01-01
In a covariant gauge we implicitly assume that the Green's function propagates information from one point of the space-time to another, so that the Green's function is responsible for the dynamics of the relativistic particle. In the light front form one would naively expect that this feature would be preserved. In this manner, the fermionic field propagator can be split into a propagating piece and a non-propagating ('contact') term. Since the latter ('contact') one does not propagate information, and therefore, supposedly can be discarded with no harm to the field dynamics we wanted to know what would be the impact of dropping it off. To do that, we investigated its role in the Ward identity in the light front. Here we use the terminology Ward identity to identify the limiting case of photon's zero momentum transfer in the vertex from the more general Ward-Takahashi identity with nonzero momentum transfer.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Jong Woon; Lee, Young Ouk
2016-01-01
When we use MCNP code for a deep shielding problem, we prefer to use variance reduction technique such as geometry splitting, or weight window, or source biasing to have relative error within reliable confidence interval. To generate importance map for geometry splitting in MCNP calculation, we should know the track entering number and previous importance on each cells since a new importance is calculated based on these information. If a problem is deep shielding problem such that we have zero tracks entering on a cell, we cannot generate new importance map. In this case, discrete ordinates code can provide information to generate importance map easily. In this paper, we use AETIUS code as a discrete ordinates code. Importance map for MCNP is generated based on a zone average flux of AETIUS calculation. The discretization of space, angle, and energy is not necessary for MCNP calculation. This is the big merit of MCNP code compared to the deterministic code. However, deterministic code (i.e., AETIUS) can provide a rough estimate of the flux throughout a problem relatively quickly. This can help MCNP by providing variance reduction parameters. Recently, ADVANTG code is released. This is an automated tool for generating variance reduction parameters for fixed-source continuous-energy Monte Carlo simulations with MCNP5 v1.60
Tunable magnetization of infrared epsilon-near-zero media via field-effect modulation
Salary, Mohammad Mahdi; Mosallaei, Hossein
2018-04-01
In this letter, we demonstrate that field effect modulation enables electrical tuning of the effective permeability of epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) media at infrared frequencies. In particular, hexagonal silicon carbide (6H-SiC) is incorporated as an epsilon-near-zero host in a gated 6H-SiC/SiO2/Si heterostructure. The change in the applied voltage leads to a change in the carrier concentration of the accumulation layer formed at the interface of 6H-SiC and SiO2 which can alter the effective permeability of the heterostructure by virtue of the photonic doping effect. We will rigorously model and analyze the structure by linking charge transport and electromagnetic models. The presented mechanism allows for tuning the impedance and magnetization of ENZ materials in real-time while capturing extreme cases of epsilon-and-mu-near-zero and magnetic conductor. As such, it can be used for various applications such as real-time engineering of thermal emission, dynamic switching, reconfigurable tunneling, and holography.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nebel, R.A.; Hagenson, R.L.; Moses, R.W.; Krakowski, R.A.
1980-01-01
Conceptual fusion reactor designs of the Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor (RFPR) have been based on profile-averaged zero-dimensional (point) plasma models. The plasma response/performance that has been predicted by the point plasma model is re-examined by a comprehensive one-dimensional (radial) burn code that has been developed and parametrically evaluated for the RFPR. Agreement is good between the zero-dimensional and one-dimensional models, giving more confidence in the RFPR design point reported previously from the zero-dimensional analysis
Method of orthogonally splitting imaging pose measurement
Zhao, Na; Sun, Changku; Wang, Peng; Yang, Qian; Liu, Xintong
2018-01-01
In order to meet the aviation's and machinery manufacturing's pose measurement need of high precision, fast speed and wide measurement range, and to resolve the contradiction between measurement range and resolution of vision sensor, this paper proposes an orthogonally splitting imaging pose measurement method. This paper designs and realizes an orthogonally splitting imaging vision sensor and establishes a pose measurement system. The vision sensor consists of one imaging lens, a beam splitter prism, cylindrical lenses and dual linear CCD. Dual linear CCD respectively acquire one dimensional image coordinate data of the target point, and two data can restore the two dimensional image coordinates of the target point. According to the characteristics of imaging system, this paper establishes the nonlinear distortion model to correct distortion. Based on cross ratio invariability, polynomial equation is established and solved by the least square fitting method. After completing distortion correction, this paper establishes the measurement mathematical model of vision sensor, and determines intrinsic parameters to calibrate. An array of feature points for calibration is built by placing a planar target in any different positions for a few times. An terative optimization method is presented to solve the parameters of model. The experimental results show that the field angle is 52 °, the focus distance is 27.40 mm, image resolution is 5185×5117 pixels, displacement measurement error is less than 0.1mm, and rotation angle measurement error is less than 0.15°. The method of orthogonally splitting imaging pose measurement can satisfy the pose measurement requirement of high precision, fast speed and wide measurement range.
Zero-field optical magnetic resonance study of phosphorus donors in 28-silicon
Morse, Kevin J.; Dluhy, Phillip; Huber, Julian; Salvail, Jeff Z.; Saeedi, Kamyar; Riemann, Helge; Abrosimov, Nikolay V.; Becker, Peter; Pohl, Hans-Joachim; Simmons, S.; Thewalt, M. L. W.
2018-03-01
Donor spins in silicon are some of the most promising qubits for upcoming solid-state quantum technologies. The nuclear spins of phosphorus donors in enriched silicon have among the longest coherence times of any solid-state system as well as simultaneous high fidelity qubit initialization, manipulation, and readout. Here we characterize the phosphorus in silicon system in the regime of "zero" magnetic field, where a singlet-triplet spin clock transition can be accessed, using laser spectroscopy and magnetic resonance methods. We show the system can be optically hyperpolarized and has ˜10 s Hahn echo coherence times, even for applied static magnetic fields below Earth's field.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Llor, M.
1987-01-01
The method known as Nuclear Resonance in the zero-field, applied to the spectral analysis of powders, is discussed. In the method, the anisotropy due to the preferential direction of the magnetic field is suppressed, but a high sensitivity is keeped. For powders spectra, the process allows the obtention resolutions, of dipolar and quadrupolar couplings, in the range of those only obtained on monocrystals under strong fields. By suitable magnetic field oscillations, and by the effect of the high field on the RMN signal, the transient evolutions of the spins are obtained. Concerning the absence of a preferred direction in the zero-field, a powder or the monocrystals show nearly the same behavior. In such conditions, a much more interesting spectra than those from a powder in a strong field, can be obtained. The RMN spectrometer is described. The possibilities, the experimental and theoretical limits of the proposed method, are analyzed. Applications on dipolar (proton and phosphor) and quadrupolar (deuterium) interactions, on hydrated salts and on cyclophasphazenes are carried out [fr
The Apparent Lack of Lorentz Invariance in Zero-Point Fields with Truncated Spectra
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daywitt W. C.
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The integrals that describe the expectation values of the zero-point quantum-field-theoretic vacuum state are semi-infinite, as are the integrals for the stochastic electrodynamic vacuum. The unbounded upper limit to these integrals leads in turn to infinite energy densities and renormalization masses. A number of models have been put forward to truncate the integrals so that these densities and masses are finite. Unfortunately the truncation apparently destroys the Lorentz invariance of the integrals. This note argues that the integrals are naturally truncated by the graininess of the negative-energy Planck vacuum state from which the zero-point vacuum arises, and are thus automatically Lorentz invariant.
Majorana splitting from critical currents in Josephson junctions
Cayao, Jorge; San-Jose, Pablo; Black-Schaffer, Annica M.; Aguado, Ramón; Prada, Elsa
2017-11-01
A semiconducting nanowire with strong Rashba spin-orbit coupling and coupled to a superconductor can be tuned by an external Zeeman field into a topological phase with Majorana zero modes. Here we theoretically investigate how this exotic topological superconductor phase manifests in Josephson junctions based on such proximitized nanowires. In particular, we focus on critical currents in the short junction limit (LN≪ξ , where LN is the junction length and ξ is the superconducting coherence length) and show that they contain important information about nontrivial topology and Majoranas. This includes signatures of the gap inversion at the topological transition and a unique oscillatory pattern that originates from Majorana interference. Interestingly, this pattern can be modified by tuning the transmission across the junction, thus providing complementary evidence of Majoranas and their energy splittings beyond standard tunnel spectroscopy experiments, while offering further tunability by virtue of the Josephson effect.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, J C H; Klochan, O; Micolich, A P; Hamilton, A R; Martin, T P; Ho, L H; Zuelicke, U; Reuter, D; Wieck, A D
2010-01-01
In this paper, We study the Zeeman spin-splitting in hole quantum wires oriented along the [011] and [01 1-bar] crystallographic axes of a high mobility undoped (100)-oriented AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructure. Our data show that the spin-splitting can be switched 'on' (finite g*) or 'off' (zero g*) by rotating the field from a parallel to a perpendicular orientation with respect to the wire, and the properties of the wire are identical for the two orientations with respect to the crystallographic axes. We also find that the g-factor in the parallel orientation decreases as the wire is narrowed. This is in contrast to electron quantum wires, where the g-factor is enhanced by exchange effects as the wire is narrowed. This is evidence for a k-dependent Zeeman splitting that arises from the spin-3/2 nature of holes.
van Rossum, Anne C.; Lin, Hai Xiang; Dubbeldam, Johan; van der Herik, H. Jaap
2018-04-01
In machine vision typical heuristic methods to extract parameterized objects out of raw data points are the Hough transform and RANSAC. Bayesian models carry the promise to optimally extract such parameterized objects given a correct definition of the model and the type of noise at hand. A category of solvers for Bayesian models are Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. Naive implementations of MCMC methods suffer from slow convergence in machine vision due to the complexity of the parameter space. Towards this blocked Gibbs and split-merge samplers have been developed that assign multiple data points to clusters at once. In this paper we introduce a new split-merge sampler, the triadic split-merge sampler, that perform steps between two and three randomly chosen clusters. This has two advantages. First, it reduces the asymmetry between the split and merge steps. Second, it is able to propose a new cluster that is composed out of data points from two different clusters. Both advantages speed up convergence which we demonstrate on a line extraction problem. We show that the triadic split-merge sampler outperforms the conventional split-merge sampler. Although this new MCMC sampler is demonstrated in this machine vision context, its application extend to the very general domain of statistical inference.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J.E. Camargo-Molina
2014-10-01
Full Text Available We re-evaluate the constraints on the parameter space of the minimal supersymmetric standard model from tunneling to charge- and/or color-breaking minima, taking into account thermal corrections. We pay particular attention to the region known as the Natural MSSM, where the masses of the scalar partners of the top quarks are within an order of magnitude or so of the electroweak scale. These constraints arise from the interaction between these scalar tops and the Higgs fields, which allows the possibility of parameter points having deep charge- and color-breaking true vacua. In addition to requiring that our electroweak-symmetry-breaking, yet QCD- and electromagnetism-preserving vacuum has a sufficiently long lifetime at zero temperature, also demanding stability against thermal tunneling further restricts the allowed parameter space.
A split hand-split foot (SHFM3) gene is located at 10q24{yields}25
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gurrieri, F.; Genuardi, M.; Nanni, L.; Sangiorgi, E.; Garofalo, G. [Catholic Univ. of Rome (Italy)] [and others
1996-04-24
The split hand-split foot (SHSF) malformation affects the central rays of the upper and lower limbs. It presents either as an isolated defect or in association with other skeletal or non-skeletal abnormalities. An autosomal SHSF locus (SHFM1) was previously mapped to 7q22.1. We report the mapping of a second autosomal SHSF locus to 10q24{yields}25 region. Maximum lod scores of 3.73, 4.33 and 4.33 at a recombination fraction of zero were obtained for the loci D10S198, PAX2 and D10S1239, respectively. An 19 cM critical region could be defined by haplotype analysis and several genes with a potential role in limb morphogenesis are located in this region. Heterogeneity testing indicates the existence of at least one additional autosomal SHSF locus. 36 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Storace, Eleonora
2009-01-01
From the development of the first transistor in 1947, great interest has been directed towards the technological development of semiconducting devices and the investigation of their physical properties. A very vital field within this topic focuses on the electrical transport through low-dimensional structures, where the quantum confinement of charge carriers leads to the observation of a wide variety of phenomena that, in their turn, can give an interesting insight on the fundamental properties of the structures under examination. In the present thesis, we will start analyzing zero-dimensional systems, focusing on how electrons localized onto an island can take part in the transport through the whole system; by precisely tuning the tunnel coupling strength between this island and its surroundings, we will then show how it is possible to move from a zero- to a one-dimensional system. Afterwards, the inverse path will be studied: a one-dimensional system is electrically characterized, proving itself to split up due to disorder into several zero-dimensional structures. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Storace, Eleonora
2009-07-08
From the development of the first transistor in 1947, great interest has been directed towards the technological development of semiconducting devices and the investigation of their physical properties. A very vital field within this topic focuses on the electrical transport through low-dimensional structures, where the quantum confinement of charge carriers leads to the observation of a wide variety of phenomena that, in their turn, can give an interesting insight on the fundamental properties of the structures under examination. In the present thesis, we will start analyzing zero-dimensional systems, focusing on how electrons localized onto an island can take part in the transport through the whole system; by precisely tuning the tunnel coupling strength between this island and its surroundings, we will then show how it is possible to move from a zero- to a one-dimensional system. Afterwards, the inverse path will be studied: a one-dimensional system is electrically characterized, proving itself to split up due to disorder into several zero-dimensional structures. (orig.)
Parity doubling structure of nucleon at non-zero density in the holographic mean field theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
He Bing-Ran
2014-06-01
Full Text Available We summarize our recent work in which we develope the holographic mean field approach to study the dense baryonic matter in a bottom-up holographic QCD model including baryons and scalar mesons in addition to vector mesons. We first show that, at zero density, the rate of the chiral invariant mass of nucleon is controlled by the ratio of the infrared boundary values of two baryon fields included in the model. Then, at non-zero density, we find that the chiral condensate decreases with the increasing density indicating the partial restoration of the chiral symmetry. Our result shows that the more amount of the proton mass comes from the chiral symmetry breaking, the faster the effective nucleon mass decrease with density.
EPR, optical and superposition model study of Mn2+ doped L+ glutamic acid
Kripal, Ram; Singh, Manju
2015-12-01
Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study of Mn2+ doped L+ glutamic acid single crystal is done at room temperature. Four interstitial sites are observed and the spin Hamiltonian parameters are calculated with the help of large number of resonant lines for various angular positions of external magnetic field. The optical absorption study is also done at room temperature. The energy values for different orbital levels are calculated, and observed bands are assigned as transitions from 6A1g(s) ground state to various excited states. With the help of these assigned bands, Racah inter-electronic repulsion parameters B = 869 cm-1, C = 2080 cm-1 and cubic crystal field splitting parameter Dq = 730 cm-1 are calculated. Zero field splitting (ZFS) parameters D and E are calculated by the perturbation formulae and crystal field parameters obtained using superposition model. The calculated values of ZFS parameters are in good agreement with the experimental values obtained by EPR.
2-Photon tandem device for water splitting
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Seger, Brian; Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard
2014-01-01
Within the field Of photocatalytic water splitting there are several strategies to achieve the goal of efficient and cheap photocatalytic water splitting. This work examines one particular strategy by focusing on monolithically stacked, two-photon photoelectrochemical cells. The overall aim...... for photocatalytic water splitting by using a large bandgap photocathode and a low bandgap photoanode with attached protection layers....
SQUID-Detected MRI in the Limit of Zero Static Field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kelso, Nathan Dean [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
2009-12-14
This thesis describes an implementation of the so-called"zero-field MRI" (ZFMRI) pulse sequence, which allows for imaging in an arbitrarily low B_{0} field. The ZFMRI sequence created an effective unidirectional gradient field by using a train of pi pulses to average out the concomitant gradient components during encoding. The signals were acquired using a low-transition temperature dc Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (low-Tc dc SQUID) coupled to a first-order axial gradiometer. The experiments were carried out in a liquid helium dewar which was magnetically shielded with a single-layer mu-metal can around the outside and a superconducting Pb can contained within the helium space. We increased the filling factor of the custom-made, double-walled Pyrex insert by placing the liquid alcohol sample, at a temperature of approximately -50 degrees C, at the center of one loop of the superconducting gradiometer, which was immersed in the helium bath.
Urban pattern: Layout design by hierarchical domain splitting
Yang, Yongliang; Wang, Jun; Vouga, Etienne; Wonka, Peter
2013-01-01
We present a framework for generating street networks and parcel layouts. Our goal is the generation of high-quality layouts that can be used for urban planning and virtual environments. We propose a solution based on hierarchical domain splitting using two splitting types: streamline-based splitting, which splits a region along one or multiple streamlines of a cross field, and template-based splitting, which warps pre-designed templates to a region and uses the interior geometry of the template as the splitting lines. We combine these two splitting approaches into a hierarchical framework, providing automatic and interactive tools to explore the design space.
Urban pattern: Layout design by hierarchical domain splitting
Yang, Yongliang
2013-11-06
We present a framework for generating street networks and parcel layouts. Our goal is the generation of high-quality layouts that can be used for urban planning and virtual environments. We propose a solution based on hierarchical domain splitting using two splitting types: streamline-based splitting, which splits a region along one or multiple streamlines of a cross field, and template-based splitting, which warps pre-designed templates to a region and uses the interior geometry of the template as the splitting lines. We combine these two splitting approaches into a hierarchical framework, providing automatic and interactive tools to explore the design space.
Effect of magnetic field on the zero valent iron induced oxidation reaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Dong-hyo; Kim, Jungwon; Choi, Wonyong
2011-01-01
Highlights: → We investigate the zero valent iron induced oxidation in the presence of magnetic field. → The oxidative degradation of 4-chlorophenol is enhanced by the magnetic field. → ESR measurement confirms that more OH radicals are generated in the presence of magnetic field. → The magnetic field affects the mass transfer of O 2 and the recombination of radicals. - Abstract: The magnetic field (MF) effect on the zero valent iron (ZVI) induced oxidative reaction was investigated for the first time. The degradation of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) in the ZVI system was employed as the test oxidative reaction. MF markedly enhanced the degradation of 4-CP with the concurrent production of chlorides. The consumption of dissolved O 2 by ZVI reaction was also enhanced in the presence of MF whereas the competing reaction of H 2 production from proton reduction was retarded. Since the ZVI-induced oxidation is mainly driven by the in situ generated hydroxyl radicals, the production of OH radicals was monitored by the spin trap method using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. It was confirmed that the concentration of trapped OH radicals was enhanced in the presence of MF. Since both O 2 and Fe 0 are paramagnetic, the diffusion of O 2 onto the iron surface might be accelerated under MF. The magnetized iron can attract oxygen on itself, which makes the mass transfer process faster. As a result, the surface electrochemical reaction between Fe 0 and O 2 can be accelerated with the enhanced production of OH radicals. MF might retard the recombination of OH radicals as well.
Photon Splitting in a Strong Magnetic Field: Recalculation and Comparison with Previous Calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adler, S.L.; Schubert, C.
1996-01-01
We recalculate the amplitude for photon splitting in a strong magnetic field below the pair production threshold, using the world line path integral variant of the Bern-Kosower formalism. Numerical comparison (using programs that we have made available for public access on the Internet) shows that the results of the recalculation are identical to the earlier calculations of Adler and later of Stoneham, and to the recent recalculation by Baier, Milstein, and Shaisultanov. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Vector tomography for reconstructing electric fields with non-zero divergence in bounded domains
Koulouri, Alexandra; Brookes, Mike; Rimpiläinen, Ville
2017-01-01
In vector tomography (VT), the aim is to reconstruct an unknown multi-dimensional vector field using line integral data. In the case of a 2-dimensional VT, two types of line integral data are usually required. These data correspond to integration of the parallel and perpendicular projection of the vector field along the integration lines and are called the longitudinal and transverse measurements, respectively. In most cases, however, the transverse measurements cannot be physically acquired. Therefore, the VT methods are typically used to reconstruct divergence-free (or source-free) velocity and flow fields that can be reconstructed solely from the longitudinal measurements. In this paper, we show how vector fields with non-zero divergence in a bounded domain can also be reconstructed from the longitudinal measurements without the need of explicitly evaluating the transverse measurements. To the best of our knowledge, VT has not previously been used for this purpose. In particular, we study low-frequency, time-harmonic electric fields generated by dipole sources in convex bounded domains which arise, for example, in electroencephalography (EEG) source imaging. We explain in detail the theoretical background, the derivation of the electric field inverse problem and the numerical approximation of the line integrals. We show that fields with non-zero divergence can be reconstructed from the longitudinal measurements with the help of two sparsity constraints that are constructed from the transverse measurements and the vector Laplace operator. As a comparison to EEG source imaging, we note that VT does not require mathematical modeling of the sources. By numerical simulations, we show that the pattern of the electric field can be correctly estimated using VT and the location of the source activity can be determined accurately from the reconstructed magnitudes of the field.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gasser, U.; Allenspach, P.; Henggeler, W.; Zolliker, M.; Furrer, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)
1997-09-01
From the crystal-electric-field (CEF) splitting of the R{sup 3+}-ions, the CEF parameters of RNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C (R=Ho, Er, Tm) were deduced. In order to get information about the influence of the variation of the density of states (DOS) at the Fermi level (E{sub F}), CEF spectroscopy measurements with Co- and Cu-doped ErNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C-samples were performed. (author) 1 fig., 1 tab., 1 ref.
Spin waves in terbium. III. Magnetic anisotropy at zero wave vector
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Houmann, Jens Christian Gylden; Jensen, J.; Touborg, P.
1975-01-01
The energy gap at zero wave vector in the spin-wave dispersion relation of ferromagnetic. Tb has been studied by inelastic neutron scattering. The energy was measured as a function of temperature and applied magnetic field, and the dynamic anisotropy parameters were deduced from the results...... the effects of zero-point deviations from the fully aligned ground state, and we tentatively propose polarization-dependent two-ion couplings as their origin........ The axial anisotropy is found to depend sensitively on the orientation of the magnetic moments in the basal plane. This behavior is shown to be a convincing indication of considerable two-ion contributions to the magnetic anisotropy at zero wave vector. With the exception of the sixfold basal...
Anisotropic semivortices in dipolar spinor condensates controlled by Zeeman splitting
Liao, Bingjin; Li, Shoubo; Huang, Chunqing; Luo, Zhihuan; Pang, Wei; Tan, Haishu; Malomed, Boris A.; Li, Yongyao
2017-10-01
Spatially anisotropic solitary vortices, i.e., bright anisotropic vortex solitons (AVSs), supported by anisotropic dipole-dipole interactions, were recently predicted in spin-orbit-coupled binary Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs), in the form of two-dimensional semivortices (complexes built of zero-vorticity and vortical components). We demonstrate that the shape of the AVSs—horizontal or vertical, with respect to the in-plane polarization of the atomic dipole moments in the underlying BEC—may be effectively controlled by the strength Ω of the Zeeman splitting (ZS). A transition from the horizontal to vertical shape with the increase of Ω is found numerically and explained analytically. At the transition point, the AVS assumes the shape of an elliptical ring. The mobility of horizontal AVSs is studied, too, with the conclusion that, with the increase of Ω , their negative effective mass changes the sign to positive via a point at which the effective mass diverges. Lastly, we report a new species of inverted AVSs, with the zero-vorticity and vortex component placed in lower- and higher-energy components, as defined by the ZS. They are excited states, with respect to the ground states provided by the usual AVSs. Quite surprisingly, inverted AVSs are stable in a large parameter region.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kou, Shuqing; Gao, Yan; Zhao, Yong; Lin, Baojun
2017-01-01
The pulsed laser pre-processing of a notch as the fracture initiation source for the splitting process is the key mechanism of an advanced fracture splitting technology for C70S6 connecting rods. This study investigated the stress field of Nd:YAG pulsed laser grooving, which affects the rapid fracture initiation at the notch root and the controlled crack extension in the critical fracture splitting quality, to improve manufacturing quality. Thermal elastic-plastic incremental theory was applied to build the finite element analysis model of the stress field of pulsed laser grooving for fracture splitting based on the Rotary-Gauss body heat source. The corresponding numerical simulation of the stress field was conducted. The changes and distributions of the stress during pulsed laser grooving were examined, the influence rule of the primary technological parameters on the residual stress was analyzed, and the analysis results were validated by the corresponding cutting experiment. Results showed that the residual stress distribution was concentrated in the Heat-affected zone (HAZ) near the fracture splitting notch, which would cause micro-cracks in the HAZ. The stress state of the notch root in the fracture initiation direction was tensile stress, which was beneficial to the fracture initiation and the crack rapid extension in the subsequent fracture splitting process. However, the uneven distribution of the stress could lead to fracture splitting defects, and thus the residual stress should be lowered to a reasonable range. Decreasing the laser pulse power, increasing the processing speed, and lowering the pulse width can lower the residual stress. Along with the actual production, the reasonable main technological parameters were obtained.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kou, Shuqing; Gao, Yan; Zhao, Yong; Lin, Baojun [Jilin University, Changchun (China)
2017-05-15
The pulsed laser pre-processing of a notch as the fracture initiation source for the splitting process is the key mechanism of an advanced fracture splitting technology for C70S6 connecting rods. This study investigated the stress field of Nd:YAG pulsed laser grooving, which affects the rapid fracture initiation at the notch root and the controlled crack extension in the critical fracture splitting quality, to improve manufacturing quality. Thermal elastic-plastic incremental theory was applied to build the finite element analysis model of the stress field of pulsed laser grooving for fracture splitting based on the Rotary-Gauss body heat source. The corresponding numerical simulation of the stress field was conducted. The changes and distributions of the stress during pulsed laser grooving were examined, the influence rule of the primary technological parameters on the residual stress was analyzed, and the analysis results were validated by the corresponding cutting experiment. Results showed that the residual stress distribution was concentrated in the Heat-affected zone (HAZ) near the fracture splitting notch, which would cause micro-cracks in the HAZ. The stress state of the notch root in the fracture initiation direction was tensile stress, which was beneficial to the fracture initiation and the crack rapid extension in the subsequent fracture splitting process. However, the uneven distribution of the stress could lead to fracture splitting defects, and thus the residual stress should be lowered to a reasonable range. Decreasing the laser pulse power, increasing the processing speed, and lowering the pulse width can lower the residual stress. Along with the actual production, the reasonable main technological parameters were obtained.
Umeshkumar, Dubey Suhmita; Kumar, Manish
2018-04-01
This paper incorporates an improved design of Ultra Wideband Bandpass filter by using split ring resonators (SRR) along with the coupled microstrip lines. The use of split ring resonators and shunt step impedance open circuit stub enhances the stability due to transmission zeroes at the ends. The designing of filter and simulation of parameters is carried out using Ansoft's HFSS 13.0 software on RT/Duroid 6002 as a substrate with dielectric constant of 2.94. The design utilizes a frequency band from 22GHz to 29GHz. This band is reserved for Automotive Radar system and sensors as per FCC specifications. The proposed design demonstrates insertion loss less than 0.6dB and return loss better than 12dB at mid frequency i.e. 24.4GHz. The reflection coefficient shows high stability of about 12.47dB at mid frequency. The fractional bandwidth of the proposed filter is about 28.7% and size of filter design is small due to thickness of 0.127mm.
Photon polarization tensor in the light front field theory at zero and finite temperatures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva, Charles da Rocha; Perez, Silvana; Strauss, Stefan
2012-01-01
Full text: In recent years, light front quantized field theories have been successfully generalized to finite temperature. The light front frame was introduced by Dirac , and the quantization of field theories on the null-plane has found applications in many branches of physics. In order to obtain the thermal contribution, we consider the hard thermal loop approximation. This technique was developed by Braaten and Pisarski for the thermal quantum field theory at equal times and is particularly useful to extract the leading thermal contributions to the amplitudes in perturbative quantum field theories. In this work, we consider the light front quantum electrodynamics in (3+1) dimensions and evaluate the photon polarization tensor at one loop for both zero and finite temperatures. In the first case, we apply the dimensional regularization method to extract the finite contribution and find the transverse structure for the amplitude in terms of the light front coordinates. The result agrees with one-loop covariant calculation. For the thermal corrections, we generalize the hard thermal loop approximation to the light front and calculate the dominant temperature contribution to the polarization tensor, consistent with the Ward identity. In both zero as well as finite temperature calculations, we use the oblique light front coordinates. (author)
Qiu, Jing; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping; Chen, Hengjia
2016-05-01
In this paper, a high sensitivity zero-biased magnetic field sensor based on multiphase laminate heterostructures consisting of FeCuNbSiB/Terfenol-D (Tb1-xDyxFe2)/PZT (Pb(Zr1-x,Tix)O3)/Terfenol-D/PZT/Ternol-D/FeCuNbSiB (FMPMPMF) is presented, whose ME coupling characteristics and sensing performances have been investigated. Compared to traditional Terfenol-D/PZT/Terfenol-D (MPM) and Terfenol-D/PZT/Terfenol-D/PZT/Terfenol-D (MPMPM) sensors, the zero-biased ME coupling characteristics of FMPMPMF sensor were significantly improved, owing to a build-in magnetic field in FeCuNbSiB/Terfenol-D layers. The optimum zero-biased resonant ME voltage coefficient of 3.02 V/Oe is achieved, which is 1.65 times as great as that of MPMPM and 2.51 times of MPM sensors. The mean value of low-frequency ME field coefficient of FMPMPMF reaches 122.53 mV/cm Oe, which is 2.39 times as great as that of MPMPM and 1.79 times of MPM sensors. Meanwhile, the induced zero-biased ME voltage of FMPMPMF sensor shows an excellent linear relationship to ac magnetic field both at the low frequency (1 kHz) and the resonant frequency (106.6 kHz). Remarkably, it indicates that the proposed zero-biased magnetic field sensor give the prospect of being able to applied to the field of highly sensitive ac magnetic field sensing.
Transformations, Inc.: Partnering to Build Net-Zero Energy Houses in Massachusetts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Bergey, D. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Wytrykowska, H. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)
2013-09-01
Transformations, Inc. is a residential development and building company that has partnered with Building Science Corporation to build new construction net-zero energy houses in Massachusetts under the Building America program. There are three communities that will be constructed through this partnership: Devens Sustainable Housing ('Devens'), The Homes at Easthampton Meadow ('Easthampton') andPhase II of the Coppersmith Way Development ('Townsend'). This report intends to cover all of the single-family new construction homes that have been completed to date. The houses built in these developments are net zero energy homes built in a cold climate. They will contribute to finding answers to specific research questions for homes with high R double stud walls and high efficiency ductlessair source heat pump systems ('mini-splits'); allow to explore topics related to the financing of photovoltaic systems and basements vs. slab-on-grade construction; and provide feedback related to the performance of ductless mini-split air source heat pumps.
Transformations, Inc.. Partnering To Build Net-Zero Energy Houses in Massachusetts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Bergey, D. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Wytrykowska, H. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)
2013-09-01
Transformations, Inc. is a residential development and building company that has partnered with Building Science Corporation to build new construction net-zero energy houses in Massachusetts under the Building America program. There are three communities that will be constructed through this partnership: Devens Sustainable Housing ("Devens"), The Homes at Easthampton Meadow ("Easthampton") and Phase II of the Coppersmith Way Development ("Townsend"). This report intends to cover all of the single-family new construction homes that have been completed to date. The houses built in these developments are net zero energy homes built in a cold climate. They will contribute to finding answers to specific research questions for homes with high R double stud walls and high efficiency ductless air source heat pump systems ("mini-splits"); allow to explore topics related to the financing of photovoltaic systems and basements vs. slab-on-grade construction; and provide feedback related to the performance of ductless mini-split air source heat pumps.
ACS Photometric Zero Point Verification
Dolphin, Andrew
2003-07-01
The uncertainties in the photometric zero points create a fundamental limit to the accuracy of photometry. The current state of the ACS calibration is surprisingly poor, with zero point uncertainties of 0.03 magnitudes in the Johnson filters. The reason for this is that ACS observations of excellent ground-based standard fields, such as the omega Cen field used for WFPC2 calibrations, have not been obtained. Instead, the ACS photometric calibrations are based primarily on semi-emprical synthetic zero points and observations of fields too crowded for accurate ground-based photometry. I propose to remedy this problem by obtaining ACS broadband images of the omega Cen standard field with both the WFC and HRC. This will permit the direct determination of the ACS transformations, and is expected to double the accuracy to which the ACS zero points are known. A second benefit is that it will facilitate the comparison of the WFPC2 and ACS photometric systems, which will be important as WFPC2 is phased out and ACS becomes HST's primary imager.
Goos-Hänchen shift of partially coherent light fields in epsilon-near-zero metamaterials
Ziauddin; Chuang, You-Lin; Qamar, Sajid; Lee, Ray-Kuang
2016-05-01
The Goos-Hänchen (GH) shifts in the reflected light are investigated both for p and s polarized partial coherent light beams incident on epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterials. In contrary to the coherent counterparts, the magnitude of GH shift becomes non-zero for p polarized partial coherent light beam; while GH shift can be relatively large with a small degree of spatial coherence for s polarized partial coherent beam. Dependence on the beam width and the permittivity of ENZ metamaterials is also revealed for partial coherent light fields. Our results on the GH shifts provide a direction on the applications for partial coherent light sources in ENZ metamaterials.
Strangeness, charm and beauty production at the split field magnet detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geist, W.M.
1982-01-01
The Split Field Magnet detector is used to investigate heavy flavour production at the ISR by various techniques: (a) Decays of neutral strange particles are reconstructed in full phase space yielding detailed information on K 0 sub(s) and Λ production. (b) A trigger telescope with electron identification was added to the standard set-up at a polar angle of 90 0 to measure the prompt electron flux due to semileptonic decays of charmed and beauty hadrons. (c) Events with a triggering electron were also fully reconstructed to search for associated production of open charm and-open beauty. (d) A different study of charmed particle production is based on data taken with a K - trigger at forward angles
Zero-truncated negative binomial - Erlang distribution
Bodhisuwan, Winai; Pudprommarat, Chookait; Bodhisuwan, Rujira; Saothayanun, Luckhana
2017-11-01
The zero-truncated negative binomial-Erlang distribution is introduced. It is developed from negative binomial-Erlang distribution. In this work, the probability mass function is derived and some properties are included. The parameters of the zero-truncated negative binomial-Erlang distribution are estimated by using the maximum likelihood estimation. Finally, the proposed distribution is applied to real data, the number of methamphetamine in the Bangkok, Thailand. Based on the results, it shows that the zero-truncated negative binomial-Erlang distribution provided a better fit than the zero-truncated Poisson, zero-truncated negative binomial, zero-truncated generalized negative-binomial and zero-truncated Poisson-Lindley distributions for this data.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kishore, P.; Ramesh, R.; Hariharan, K.; Kathiravan, C. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, 2nd Block, Koramangala, Bangalore—560034 (India); Gopalswamy, N., E-mail: kishore@iiap.res.in [Code 671, Solar Physics Laboratory, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)
2016-11-20
We report on low-frequency radio (85–35 MHz) spectral observations of four different type II radio bursts, which exhibited fundamental-harmonic emission and split-band structure. Each of the bursts was found to be closely associated with a whitelight coronal mass ejection (CME) close to the Sun. We estimated the coronal magnetic field strength from the split-band characteristics of the bursts, by assuming a model for the coronal electron density distribution. The choice of the model was constrained, based on the following criteria: (1) when the radio burst is observed simultaneously in the upper and lower bands of the fundamental component, the location of the plasma level corresponding to the frequency of the burst in the lower band should be consistent with the deprojected location of the leading edge (LE) of the associated CME; (2) the drift speed of the type II bursts derived from such a model should agree closely with the deprojected speed of the LE of the corresponding CMEs. With the above conditions, we find that: (1) the estimated field strengths are unique to each type II burst, and (2) the radial variation of the field strength in the different events indicate a pattern. It is steepest for the case where the heliocentric distance range over which the associated burst is observed is closest to the Sun, and vice versa.
On the additive splitting procedures and their computer realization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Farago, I.; Thomsen, Per Grove; Zlatev, Z.
2008-01-01
Two additive splitting procedures are defined and studied in this paper. It is shown that these splitting procedures have good stability properties. Some other splitting procedures, which are traditionally used in mathematical models used in many scientific and engineering fields, are sketched. All...
Split brain: divided perception but undivided consciousness.
Pinto, Yair; Neville, David A; Otten, Marte; Corballis, Paul M; Lamme, Victor A F; de Haan, Edward H F; Foschi, Nicoletta; Fabri, Mara
2017-05-01
In extensive studies with two split-brain patients we replicate the standard finding that stimuli cannot be compared across visual half-fields, indicating that each hemisphere processes information independently of the other. Yet, crucially, we show that the canonical textbook findings that a split-brain patient can only respond to stimuli in the left visual half-field with the left hand, and to stimuli in the right visual half-field with the right hand and verbally, are not universally true. Across a wide variety of tasks, split-brain patients with a complete and radiologically confirmed transection of the corpus callosum showed full awareness of presence, and well above chance-level recognition of location, orientation and identity of stimuli throughout the entire visual field, irrespective of response type (left hand, right hand, or verbally). Crucially, we used confidence ratings to assess conscious awareness. This revealed that also on high confidence trials, indicative of conscious perception, response type did not affect performance. These findings suggest that severing the cortical connections between hemispheres splits visual perception, but does not create two independent conscious perceivers within one brain. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Temporal self-splitting of optical pulses
Ding, Chaoliang; Koivurova, Matias; Turunen, Jari; Pan, Liuzhan
2018-05-01
We present mathematical models for temporally and spectrally partially coherent pulse trains with Laguerre-Gaussian and Hermite-Gaussian Schell-model statistics as extensions of the standard Gaussian Schell model for pulse trains. We derive propagation formulas of both classes of pulsed fields in linearly dispersive media and in temporal optical systems. It is found that, in general, both types of fields exhibit time-domain self-splitting upon propagation. The Laguerre-Gaussian model leads to multiply peaked pulses, while the Hermite-Gaussian model leads to doubly peaked pulses, in the temporal far field (in dispersive media) or at the Fourier plane of a temporal system. In both model fields the character of the self-splitting phenomenon depends both on the degree of temporal and spectral coherence and on the power spectrum of the field.
Renormalization of Magnetic Excitations in Praseodymium
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindgård, Per-Anker
1975-01-01
The magnetic exciton renormalization and soft-mode behaviour as the temperature approaches zero of the singlet-doublet magnet (dhcp)pr are accounted for by a selfconsistent rpa theory with no adjustable parameters. The crystal-field splitting between the ground state and the doublet is d=3.74 mev...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Srivastava, Shiv P.; Das, Indra J.; Kumar, Arvind; Johnstone, Peter A.S.
2011-01-01
Some treatment planning systems (TPSs), when used for large-field (>14 cm) intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), create split fields that produce excessive multiple-leaf collimator segments, match-line dose inhomogeneity, and higher treatment times than nonsplit fields. A new method using a fixed-jaw technique (FJT) forces the jaw to stay at a fixed position during optimization and is proposed to reduce problems associated with split fields. Dosimetric comparisons between split-field technique (SFT) and FJT used for IMRT treatment is presented. Five patients with head and neck malignancies and regional target volumes were studied and compared with both techniques. Treatment planning was performed on an Eclipse TPS using beam data generated for Varian 2100C linear accelerator. A standard beam arrangement consisting of nine coplanar fields, equally spaced, was used in both techniques. Institutional dose-volume constraints used in head and neck cancer were kept the same for both techniques. The dosimetric coverage for the target volumes between SFT and FJT for head and neck IMRT plan is identical within ±1% up to 90% dose. Similarly, the organs at risk (OARs) have dose-volume coverage nearly identical for all patients. When the total monitor unit (MU) and segments were analyzed, SFT produces statistically significant higher segments (17.3 ± 6.3%) and higher MU (13.7 ± 4.4%) than the FJT. There is no match line in FJT and hence dose uniformity in the target volume is superior to the SFT. Dosimetrically, SFT and FJT are similar for dose-volume coverage; however, the FJT method provides better logistics, lower MU, shorter treatment time, and better dose uniformity. The number of segments and MU also has been correlated with the whole body radiation dose with long-term complications. Thus, FJT should be the preferred option over SFT for large target volumes.
Zero modes in discretized light-front quantization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martinovic, E.
1997-01-01
The current understanding of the role of bosonic zero modes in field-theoretical models quantized at the equal light-front time is reviewed. After a brief discussion of the main features of the light-front field theories - in particular the simplicity of the physical vacuum - the light-front canonical formalism for the quantum electrodynamics and the Yukawa model is sketched. The zero mode of Maskawa and Yamawaki is reviewed. Reasons for the appearance of the constrained and/or dynamical zero modes are explained along with the subtleties of the gauge fixing in presence of boundary conditions. Perturbative treatment of the corresponding constraint equations in the Yukawa model and quantum electrodynamics (3+1) is outlined. The next topic is the manifestation of the symmetry breaking in the light-front field theory. A pattern of multiple solutions to the zero-mode constraint equations replacing physical picture of multiple vacua of the conventionally quantized field theories is illustrated on an example of 2-dimensional theory. The importance of a (regularized) constrained zero mode of the pion field for the consistency of the Nambu-Goldstone phase of the discretized light-front linear a/model is demonstrated. Finally, a non-trivial physical vacuum based on the dynamical zero mode is constructed for the two-dimensional light-front quantum electrodynamics. (authors)
Coupling the Gaussian Free Fields with Free and with Zero Boundary Conditions via Common Level Lines
Qian, Wei; Werner, Wendelin
2018-06-01
We point out a new simple way to couple the Gaussian Free Field (GFF) with free boundary conditions in a two-dimensional domain with the GFF with zero boundary conditions in the same domain: Starting from the latter, one just has to sample at random all the signs of the height gaps on its boundary-touching zero-level lines (these signs are alternating for the zero-boundary GFF) in order to obtain a free boundary GFF. Constructions and couplings of the free boundary GFF and its level lines via soups of reflected Brownian loops and their clusters are also discussed. Such considerations show for instance that in a domain with an axis of symmetry, if one looks at the overlay of a single usual Conformal Loop Ensemble CLE3 with its own symmetric image, one obtains the CLE4-type collection of level lines of a GFF with mixed zero/free boundary conditions in the half-domain.
A zero-one programming approach to Gulliksen's matched random subtests method
van der Linden, Willem J.; Boekkooi-Timminga, Ellen
1988-01-01
Gulliksen’s matched random subtests method is a graphical method to split a test into parallel test halves. The method has practical relevance because it maximizes coefficient α as a lower bound to the classical test reliability coefficient. In this paper the same problem is formulated as a zero-one
Splitting of turbulent spot in transitional pipe flow
Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Adrian, Ronald J.
2017-11-01
Recent study (Wu et al., PNAS, 1509451112, 2015) demonstrated the feasibility and accuracy of direct computation of the Osborne Reynolds' pipe transition problem without the unphysical, axially periodic boundary condition. Here we use this approach to study the splitting of turbulent spot in transitional pipe flow, a feature first discovered by E.R. Lindgren (Arkiv Fysik 15, 1959). It has been widely believed that spot splitting is a mysterious stochastic process that has general implications on the lifetime and sustainability of wall turbulence. We address the following two questions: (1) What is the dynamics of turbulent spot splitting in pipe transition? Specifically, we look into any possible connection between the instantaneous strain rate field and the spot splitting. (2) How does the passive scalar field behave during the process of pipe spot splitting. In this study, the turbulent spot is introduced at the inlet plane through a sixty degree wide numerical wedge within which fully-developed turbulent profiles are assigned over a short time interval; and the simulation Reynolds numbers are 2400 for a 500 radii long pipe, and 2300 for a 1000 radii long pipe, respectively. Numerical dye is tagged on the imposed turbulent spot at the inlet. Splitting of the imposed turbulent spot is detected very easily. Preliminary analysis of the DNS results seems to suggest that turbulent spot slitting can be easily understood based on instantaneous strain rate field, and such spot splitting may not be relevant in external flows such as the flat-plate boundary layer.
Cadiz, Fabian; Djeffal, Abdelhak; Lagarde, Delphine; Balocchi, Andrea; Tao, Bingshan; Xu, Bo; Liang, Shiheng; Stoffel, Mathieu; Devaux, Xavier; Jaffres, Henri; George, Jean-Marie; Hehn, Michel; Mangin, Stephane; Carrere, Helene; Marie, Xavier; Amand, Thierry; Han, Xiufeng; Wang, Zhanguo; Urbaszek, Bernhard; Lu, Yuan; Renucci, Pierre
2018-04-11
The emission of circularly polarized light from a single quantum dot relies on the injection of carriers with well-defined spin polarization. Here we demonstrate single dot electroluminescence (EL) with a circular polarization degree up to 35% at zero applied magnetic field. The injection of spin-polarized electrons is achieved by combining ultrathin CoFeB electrodes on top of a spin-LED device with p-type InGaAs quantum dots in the active region. We measure an Overhauser shift of several microelectronvolts at zero magnetic field for the positively charged exciton (trion X + ) EL emission, which changes sign as we reverse the injected electron spin orientation. This is a signature of dynamic polarization of the nuclear spins in the quantum dot induced by the hyperfine interaction with the electrically injected electron spin. This study paves the way for electrical control of nuclear spin polarization in a single quantum dot without any external magnetic field.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Safari, Mahmoud [Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Particles and Accelerators, P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2016-04-15
Within the background-field framework we present a path integral derivation of the splitting Ward identity for the one-particle irreducible effective action in the presence of an infrared regulator, and make connection with earlier works on the subject. The approach is general in the sense that it does not rely on how the splitting is performed. This identity is then used to address the problem of background dependence of the effective action at an arbitrary energy scale. We next introduce the modified master equation and emphasize its role in constraining the effective action. Finally, application to general gauge theories within the geometric approach is discussed. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Safari, Mahmoud
2016-01-01
Within the background-field framework we present a path integral derivation of the splitting Ward identity for the one-particle irreducible effective action in the presence of an infrared regulator, and make connection with earlier works on the subject. The approach is general in the sense that it does not rely on how the splitting is performed. This identity is then used to address the problem of background dependence of the effective action at an arbitrary energy scale. We next introduce the modified master equation and emphasize its role in constraining the effective action. Finally, application to general gauge theories within the geometric approach is discussed. (orig.)
Tune splitting in the presence of linear coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parzen, G.
1991-01-01
The presence of random skew quadrupole field errors will couple the x and y motions. The x and y motions are then each given by the sum of 2 normal modes with the tunes v 1 and v 2 , which may differ appreciably from v x and v y , the unperturbed tunes. This is often called tune splitting since |v 1 - v 2 | is usually larger than |v x - v y |. This tune splitting may be large in proton accelerators using superconducting magnets, because of the relatively large random skew quadrupole field errors that are expected in these magnets. This effect is also increased by the required insertions in proton colliders which generate large β-functions in the insertion region. This tune splitting has been studied in the RHIC accelerator. For RHIC, a tune splitting as large as 0.2 was found in one worse case. A correction system has been developed for correcting this large tune splitting which uses two families of skew quadrupole correctors. It has been found that this correction system corrects most of the large tune splitting, but a residual tune splitting remains that is still appreciable. This paper discusses the corrections to this residual time
Dzhusupova, R.
2012-01-01
Creating a zero energy environment is a hot topic. The developments in this field are based on the concept of the "Trias Energetica": reducing energy consumption, using renewable energy sources, and efficiently using fossil fuels. A zero energy concept can also be applied to road tunnels to improve
Vector tomography for reconstructing electric fields with non-zero divergence in bounded domains
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koulouri, Alexandra, E-mail: koulouri@uni-muenster.de [Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics, University of Münster, Einsteinstrasse 62, D-48149 Münster (Germany); Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2BT (United Kingdom); Brookes, Mike [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2BT (United Kingdom); Rimpiläinen, Ville [Institute for Biomagnetism and Biosignalanalysis, University of Münster, Malmedyweg 15, D-48149 Münster (Germany); Department of Mathematics, University of Auckland, Private bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)
2017-01-15
In vector tomography (VT), the aim is to reconstruct an unknown multi-dimensional vector field using line integral data. In the case of a 2-dimensional VT, two types of line integral data are usually required. These data correspond to integration of the parallel and perpendicular projection of the vector field along the integration lines and are called the longitudinal and transverse measurements, respectively. In most cases, however, the transverse measurements cannot be physically acquired. Therefore, the VT methods are typically used to reconstruct divergence-free (or source-free) velocity and flow fields that can be reconstructed solely from the longitudinal measurements. In this paper, we show how vector fields with non-zero divergence in a bounded domain can also be reconstructed from the longitudinal measurements without the need of explicitly evaluating the transverse measurements. To the best of our knowledge, VT has not previously been used for this purpose. In particular, we study low-frequency, time-harmonic electric fields generated by dipole sources in convex bounded domains which arise, for example, in electroencephalography (EEG) source imaging. We explain in detail the theoretical background, the derivation of the electric field inverse problem and the numerical approximation of the line integrals. We show that fields with non-zero divergence can be reconstructed from the longitudinal measurements with the help of two sparsity constraints that are constructed from the transverse measurements and the vector Laplace operator. As a comparison to EEG source imaging, we note that VT does not require mathematical modeling of the sources. By numerical simulations, we show that the pattern of the electric field can be correctly estimated using VT and the location of the source activity can be determined accurately from the reconstructed magnitudes of the field. - Highlights: • Vector tomography is used to reconstruct electric fields generated by dipole
Márquez, Andrés; Francés, Jorge; Martínez, Francisco J.; Gallego, Sergi; Álvarez, Mariela L.; Calzado, Eva M.; Pascual, Inmaculada; Beléndez, Augusto
2018-03-01
Simplified analytical models with predictive capability enable simpler and faster optimization of the performance in applications of complex photonic devices. We recently demonstrated the most simplified analytical model still showing predictive capability for parallel-aligned liquid crystal on silicon (PA-LCoS) devices, which provides the voltage-dependent retardance for a very wide range of incidence angles and any wavelength in the visible. We further show that the proposed model is not only phenomenological but also physically meaningful, since two of its parameters provide the correct values for important internal properties of these devices related to the birefringence, cell gap, and director profile. Therefore, the proposed model can be used as a means to inspect internal physical properties of the cell. As an innovation, we also show the applicability of the split-field finite-difference time-domain (SF-FDTD) technique for phase-shift and retardance evaluation of PA-LCoS devices under oblique incidence. As a simplified model for PA-LCoS devices, we also consider the exact description of homogeneous birefringent slabs. However, we show that, despite its higher degree of simplification, the proposed model is more robust, providing unambiguous and physically meaningful solutions when fitting its parameters.
Split NMSSM with electroweak baryogenesis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Demidov, S.V.; Gorbunov, D.S. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology,Institutsky per. 9, Dolgoprudny 141700 (Russian Federation); Kirpichnikov, D.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation)
2016-11-24
In light of the Higgs boson discovery and other results of the LHC we reconsider generation of the baryon asymmetry in the split Supersymmetry model with an additional singlet superfield in the Higgs sector (non-minimal split SUSY). We find that successful baryogenesis during the first order electroweak phase transition is possible within a phenomenologically viable part of the model parameter space. We discuss several phenomenological consequences of this scenario, namely, predictions for the electric dipole moments of electron and neutron and collider signatures of light charginos and neutralinos.
Fine structure of V2+ energy levels in CsCaF3:V2+
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avram, C.N.; Brik, M.G.
2004-01-01
Theoretical investigations of the fine structure of the lasing 4 T 2g level in a CsCaF 3 :V 2+ crystal were carried out. The spin-orbit splitting of the 4 T 2g term in the static low crystal field was obtained from the Eisenstein matrices and using parameters (Dq, B, C, ζ SO ) appropriate for the 4 T 2g - 4 A 2g zero-phonon line. The 4 T 2g spinor splitting has been modeled by the second-order spin-orbit Hamiltonian. The effect of the dynamical Jahn-Teller interaction on the spin-orbit splitting of the 4 T 2g term was taken into account; the Jahn-Teller stabilization energy, ZPL splitting and the Huang-Rhys parameter for the e g normal mode were all evaluated
Electrokinetic control of sample splitting at a channel bifurcation using isotachophoresis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Persat, Alexandre; Santiago, Juan G
2009-01-01
We present a novel method for accurately splitting ionic samples at microchannel bifurcations. We leverage isotachophoresis (ITP) to focus and transport sample through a one-inlet, two-outlet microchannel bifurcation. We actively control the proportion of splitting by controlling potentials at end-channel reservoirs (and thereby controlling the current ratio). We explore the effect of buffer chemistry and local electric field on splitting dynamics and propose and validate a simple Kirchoff-type rule controlling the split ratio. We explore the effects of large applied electric fields on sample splitting and attribute a loss of splitting accuracy to electrohydrodynamic instabilities. We propose a scaling analysis to characterize the onset of this instability. This scaling is potentially useful for other electrokinetic flow problems with self-sharpening interfaces.
Appel, Markus; Frick, Bernhard; Elbert, Johannes; Gallei, Markus; Stühn, Bernd
2015-01-01
The quantum mechanical splitting of states by interaction of a magnetic moment with an external magnetic field is well known, e.g., as Zeeman effect in optical transitions, and is also often seen in magnetic neutron scattering. We report excitations observed in inelastic neutron spectroscopy on the redox-responsive polymer poly(vinylferrocene). They are interpreted as splitting of the electronic ground state in the organometallic ferrocene units attached to the polymer chain where a magnetic moment is created by oxidation. In a second experiment using high resolution neutron backscattering spectroscopy we observe the hyperfine splitting, i.e., interaction of nuclear magnetic moments with external magnetic fields leading to sub-μeV excitations observable in incoherent neutron spin-flip scattering on hydrogen and vanadium nuclei.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Iftikhar Uddin
2018-03-01
Full Text Available This attempt dedicated to the solution of buoyancy effect over a stretching sheet in existence of MHD stagnation point flow with convective boundary conditions. Thermophoresis and Brownian motion aspects are included. Incompressible fluid is electrically conducted in the presence of varying magnetic field. Boundary layer analysis is used to develop the mathematical formulation. Zero mass flux condition is considered at the boundary. Non-linear ordinary differential system of equations is constructed by means of proper transformations. Interval of convergence via numerical data and plots are developed. Characteristics of involved variables on the velocity, temperature and concentration distributions are sketched and discussed. Features of correlated parameters on Cf and Nu are examined by means of tables. It is found that buoyancy ratio and magnetic parameters increase and reduce the velocity field. Further opposite feature is noticed for higher values of thermophoresis and Brownian motion parameters on concentration distribution. Keywords: Stagnation point, MHD, Nanoparticles, Zero mass flux condition
Generalized zero point anomaly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nogueira, Jose Alexandre; Maia Junior, Adolfo
1994-01-01
It is defined Zero point Anomaly (ZPA) as the difference between the Effective Potential (EP) and the Zero point Energy (ZPE). It is shown, for a massive and interacting scalar field that, in very general conditions, the renormalized ZPA vanishes and then the renormalized EP and ZPE coincide. (author). 3 refs
Data exchange between zero dimensional code and physics platform in the CFETR integrated system code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xu, Guoliang [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 China (China); Shi, Nan [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 350 Shushanhu Road, Hefei (China); Zhou, Yifu; Mao, Shifeng [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 China (China); Jian, Xiang [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Chen, Jiale [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 350 Shushanhu Road, Hefei (China); Liu, Li; Chan, Vincent [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 China (China); Ye, Minyou, E-mail: yemy@ustc.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 China (China)
2016-11-01
Highlights: • The workflow of the zero dimensional code and the multi-dimension physics platform of CFETR integrated system codeis introduced. • The iteration process among the codes in the physics platform. • The data transfer between the zero dimensionalcode and the physical platform, including data iteration and validation, and justification for performance parameters.. - Abstract: The China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) integrated system code contains three parts: a zero dimensional code, a physics platform and an engineering platform. We use the zero dimensional code to identify a set of preliminary physics and engineering parameters for CFETR, which is used as input to initiate multi-dimension studies using the physics and engineering platform for design, verification and validation. Effective data exchange between the zero dimensional code and the physical platform is critical for the optimization of CFETR design. For example, in evaluating the impact of impurity radiation on core performance, an open field line code is used to calculate the impurity transport from the first-wall boundary to the pedestal. The impurity particle in the pedestal are used as boundary conditions in a transport code for calculating impurity transport in the core plasma and the impact of core radiation on core performance. Comparison of the results from the multi-dimensional study to those from the zero dimensional code is used to further refine the controlled radiation model. The data transfer between the zero dimensional code and the physical platform, including data iteration and validation, and justification for performance parameters will be presented in this paper.
Electronic zero-point fluctuation forces inside circuit components
Leonhardt, Ulf
2018-01-01
One of the most intriguing manifestations of quantum zero-point fluctuations are the van der Waals and Casimir forces, often associated with vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. We study generalized fluctuation potentials acting on internal degrees of freedom of components in electrical circuits. These electronic Casimir-like potentials are induced by the zero-point current fluctuations of any general conductive circuit. For realistic examples of an electromechanical capacitor and a superconducting qubit, our results reveal the possibility of tunable forces between the capacitor plates, or the level shifts of the qubit, respectively. Our analysis suggests an alternative route toward the exploration of Casimir-like fluctuation potentials, namely, by characterizing and measuring them as a function of parameters of the environment. These tunable potentials may be useful for future nanoelectromechanical and quantum technologies. PMID:29719863
Electronic zero-point fluctuation forces inside circuit components.
Shahmoon, Ephraim; Leonhardt, Ulf
2018-04-01
One of the most intriguing manifestations of quantum zero-point fluctuations are the van der Waals and Casimir forces, often associated with vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. We study generalized fluctuation potentials acting on internal degrees of freedom of components in electrical circuits. These electronic Casimir-like potentials are induced by the zero-point current fluctuations of any general conductive circuit. For realistic examples of an electromechanical capacitor and a superconducting qubit, our results reveal the possibility of tunable forces between the capacitor plates, or the level shifts of the qubit, respectively. Our analysis suggests an alternative route toward the exploration of Casimir-like fluctuation potentials, namely, by characterizing and measuring them as a function of parameters of the environment. These tunable potentials may be useful for future nanoelectromechanical and quantum technologies.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Banasek, J. T., E-mail: jtb254@cornell.edu; Engelbrecht, J. T.; Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Hammer, D. A. [Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850 (United States)
2016-11-15
We have shown that Zeeman splitting of the sodium (Na) D-lines at 5890 and 5896 Å can be used to measure the magnetic field (B-field) produced in high current pulsed power experiments. We have measured the B-field next to a return current conductor in a hybrid X-pinch experiment near a peak current of about 500 kA. Na is deposited on the conductor and then is desorbed and excited by radiation from the hybrid X-pinch. The D-line emission spectrum implies B-fields of about 20 T with a return current post of 4 mm diameter or up to 120 T with a return current wire of 0.455 mm diameter. These measurements were consistent or lower than the expected B-field, thereby showing that basic Zeeman splitting can be used to measure the B-field in a pulsed-power-driven high-energy-density (HED) plasma experiment. We hope to extend these measurement techniques using suitable ionized species to measurements within HED plasmas.
Zero-point energy in spheroidal geometries
Kitson, A. R.; Signal, A. I.
2005-01-01
We study the zero-point energy of a massless scalar field subject to spheroidal boundary conditions. Using the zeta-function method, the zero-point energy is evaluated for small ellipticity. Axially symmetric vector fields are also considered. The results are interpreted within the context of QCD flux tubes and the MIT bag model.
Particulate photocatalysts for overall water splitting
Chen, Shanshan; Takata, Tsuyoshi; Domen, Kazunari
2017-10-01
The conversion of solar energy to chemical energy is a promising way of generating renewable energy. Hydrogen production by means of water splitting over semiconductor photocatalysts is a simple, cost-effective approach to large-scale solar hydrogen synthesis. Since the discovery of the Honda-Fujishima effect, considerable progress has been made in this field, and numerous photocatalytic materials and water-splitting systems have been developed. In this Review, we summarize existing water-splitting systems based on particulate photocatalysts, focusing on the main components: light-harvesting semiconductors and co-catalysts. The essential design principles of the materials employed for overall water-splitting systems based on one-step and two-step photoexcitation are also discussed, concentrating on three elementary processes: photoabsorption, charge transfer and surface catalytic reactions. Finally, we outline challenges and potential advances associated with solar water splitting by particulate photocatalysts for future commercial applications.
Multiplet mass splitting in a gravitational field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maia, M.D.
An expression for the mass splitting of particles belonging to the same spin multiplet defined in a space-time of general relativity is derived. The geometrical symmetry is a subgroup of SO(r,s), 9 >=r > 3, 5 >=s >=1, the mass operator being proportional to the second order Casimir operator of that subgroup. A brief analysis of the calculated values as compared to the experimental data is included. (Author) [pt
Doubly perturbed S3 neutrinos and the s13 mixing parameter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jora, Renata; Schechter, Joseph; Shahid, M. Naeem
2010-01-01
We further study a predictive model for the masses and mixing matrix of three Majorana neutrinos. At zeroth order the model yielded degenerate neutrinos and a generalized tribimaximal mixing matrix. At first order the mass splitting was incorporated and the tribimaximal mixing matrix emerged with very small corrections but with a zero value for the parameter s 13 . In the present paper a different, assumed weaker, perturbation is included which gives a nonzero value for s 13 and further corrections to other quantities. These corrections are worked out and their consequences discussed under the simplifying assumption that the conventional CP violation phase vanishes. It is shown that the existing measurements of the parameter s 23 provide strong bounds on s 13 in this model.
Narrowing the Zero-Field Tunneling Resonance by Decreasing the Crystal Symmetry of Mn12 Acetate.
Espín, Jordi; Zarzuela, Ricardo; Statuto, Nahuel; Juanhuix, Jordi; Maspoch, Daniel; Imaz, Inhar; Chudnovsky, Eugene; Tejada, Javier
2016-07-27
We report the discovery of a less symmetric crystalline phase of Mn12 acetate, a triclinic phase, resulting from recrystallizing the original tetragonal phase reported by Lis in acetonitrile and toluene. This new phase exhibits the same structure of Mn12 acetate clusters and the same positions of tunneling resonances on the magnetic field as the conventional tetragonal phase. However, the width of the zero-field resonance is at least 1 order of magnitude smaller-can be as low as 50 Oe-indicating very small inhomogeneous broadening due to dipolar and nuclear fields.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Millar, J.M.
1986-02-01
High field solid-state NMR lineshapes suffer from inhomogeneous broadening since resonance frequencies are a function of molecular orientation. Time domain zero field NMR is a two-dimensional field-cycling technique which removes this broadening by probing the evolution of the spin system under zero applied field. The simplest version, the sudden transition experiment, induces zero field evolution by the sudden removal of the applied magnetic field. Theory and experimental results of this experiment and several variations using pulsed dc magnetic fuelds to initiate zero field evolution are presented. In particular, the pulsed indirect detection method allows detection of the zero field spectrum of one nuclear spin species via another (usually protons) by utilizing the level crossings which occur upon adiabatic demagnetization to zero field. Experimental examples of proton/deuteron systems are presented which demonstrate the method results in enhanced sensitivity relative to that obtained in sudden transition experiments performed directly on deuterium. High resolution /sup 2/H NQR spectra of a series of benzoic acid derivatives are obtained using the sudden transition and indirect detection methods. Librational oscillations in the water molecules of barium chlorate monohydrate are studied using proton and deuterium ZF experiments. 177 refs., 88 figs., 2 tabs.
Studies of the g factors of the ground 4A2 and the first excited 2E state of Cr 3+ ions in emerald
Wei, Qun; Guo, Li-Xin; Yang, Zi-Yuan; Wei, Bing
2011-09-01
By using complete diagonalization method, the zero-field splitting and g factors of the ground 4A2 and the first excited 2E states of Cr 3+ ions in emerald are calculated. The theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental data. The dependencies of the g factors on the crystal field parameters, including Dq, v, and v', have been studied. It is shown that, the g factors of the ground state varied with the crystal field parameters approximately in a linear way, but the g factors of the first excited state varied nonlinearly with these parameters.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen, Q H; Choi, S B
2010-01-01
This paper presents an optimal design of a magnetorheological (MR) brake for a middle-sized passenger car which can replace a conventional hydraulic disc-type brake. In the optimization, the required braking torque, the temperature due to zero-field friction of MR fluid, the mass of the brake system and all significant geometric dimensions are considered. After describing the configuration, the braking torque of the proposed MR brake is derived on the basis of the field-dependent Bingham and Herschel–Bulkley rheological model of the MR fluid. The optimal design of the MR brake is then analyzed taking into account available space, mass, braking torque and steady heat generated by zero-field friction torque of the MR brake. The optimization procedure based on the finite element analysis integrated with an optimization tool is proposed to obtain optimal geometric dimensions of the MR brake. Based on the proposed procedure, optimal solutions of single and multiple disc-type MR brakes featuring different types of MR fluid are achieved. From the results, the most effective MR brake for the middle-sized passenger car is identified and some discussions on the performance improvement of the optimized MR brake are described
Precise quantization of anomalous Hall effect near zero magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bestwick, A. J. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fox, E. J. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kou, Xufeng [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Pan, Lei [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Wang, Kang L. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Goldhaber-Gordon, D. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
2015-05-04
In this study, we report a nearly ideal quantum anomalous Hall effect in a three-dimensional topological insulator thin film with ferromagnetic doping. Near zero applied magnetic field we measure exact quantization in the Hall resistance to within a part per 10,000 and a longitudinal resistivity under 1 Ω per square, with chiral edge transport explicitly confirmed by nonlocal measurements. Deviations from this behavior are found to be caused by thermally activated carriers, as indicated by an Arrhenius law temperature dependence. Using the deviations as a thermometer, we demonstrate an unexpected magnetocaloric effect and use it to reach near-perfect quantization by cooling the sample below the dilution refrigerator base temperature in a process approximating adiabatic demagnetization refrigeration.
Electric-field-induced monoclinic phase in (Ba,Sr)TiO3 thin film
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anokhin, A. S.; Yuzyuk, Yu. I.; Golovko, Yu. I.; Mukhortov, V. M.; El Marssi, M.
2011-01-01
We have studied electric-field-induced symmetry lowering in the tetragonal (001)-oriented heteroepitaxial (Ba 0.8 Sr 0.2 )TiO 3 thin film deposited on (001)MgO substrate. Polarized micro-Raman spectra were recorded from the film area in between two planar electrodes deposited on the film surface. Presence of c domains with polarization normal to the substrate was confirmed from polarized Raman study under zero field, while splitting and hardening of the E(TO) soft mode and polarization changes in the Raman spectra suggest monoclinic symmetry under external electric field.
Comment on the coupling of zero sound to the J = 1- modes of 3He-B
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McKenzie, R.H.; Sauls, J.A.
1993-01-01
Features in the zero sound attenuation near the pair-breaking edge in superfluid 3 He-B have been observed in large magnetic fields. Schopohl and Tewordt claim that the J = 1 - , M = ± 1 orderparameter collective modes couple to zero sound as a result of the distortion of the equilibrium order parameter by a magnetic field; they identify the new features with these modes. However, the authors show that, when the effect of gap distortion on the collective modes is properly taken into account, the collective modes equations of Schopohl and Tewordt yield no direct coupling of zero sound to the J = 1 - modes. Thus, the identification of the absorption features reported by Ling, Saunders, and Dobbs near the pair-breaking edge with the J = 1 - modes is not clearly established
Zero inflated negative binomial-generalized exponential distributionand its applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sirinapa Aryuyuen
2014-08-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new zero inflated distribution, namely, the zero inflated negative binomial-generalized exponential (ZINB-GE distribution. The new distribution is used for count data with extra zeros and is an alternative for data analysis with over-dispersed count data. Some characteristics of the distribution are given, such as mean, variance, skewness, and kurtosis. Parameter estimation of the ZINB-GE distribution uses maximum likelihood estimation (MLE method. Simulated and observed data are employed to examine this distribution. The results show that the MLE method seems to have high efficiency for large sample sizes. Moreover, the mean square error of parameter estimation is increased when the zero proportion is higher. For the real data sets, this new zero inflated distribution provides a better fit than the zero inflated Poisson and zero inflated negative binomial distributions.
Source splitting via the point source method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Potthast, Roland; Fazi, Filippo M; Nelson, Philip A
2010-01-01
We introduce a new algorithm for source identification and field splitting based on the point source method (Potthast 1998 A point-source method for inverse acoustic and electromagnetic obstacle scattering problems IMA J. Appl. Math. 61 119–40, Potthast R 1996 A fast new method to solve inverse scattering problems Inverse Problems 12 731–42). The task is to separate the sound fields u j , j = 1, ..., n of n element of N sound sources supported in different bounded domains G 1 , ..., G n in R 3 from measurements of the field on some microphone array—mathematically speaking from the knowledge of the sum of the fields u = u 1 + ... + u n on some open subset Λ of a plane. The main idea of the scheme is to calculate filter functions g 1 ,…, g n , n element of N, to construct u l for l = 1, ..., n from u| Λ in the form u l (x) = ∫ Λ g l,x (y)u(y)ds(y), l=1,... n. (1) We will provide the complete mathematical theory for the field splitting via the point source method. In particular, we describe uniqueness, solvability of the problem and convergence and stability of the algorithm. In the second part we describe the practical realization of the splitting for real data measurements carried out at the Institute for Sound and Vibration Research at Southampton, UK. A practical demonstration of the original recording and the splitting results for real data is available online
Dolphin, Andrew
2005-07-01
The uncertainties in the photometric zero points create a fundamental limit to the accuracy of photometry. The current state of the ACS calibration is surprisingly poor, with zero point uncertainties of 0.03 magnitudes. The reason for this is that the ACS calibrations are based primarily on semi-emprical synthetic zero points and observations of fields too crowded for accurate ground-based photometry. I propose to remedy this problem by obtaining ACS images of the omega Cen standard field with all nine broadband ACS/WFC filters. This will permit the direct determination of the ACS zero points by comparison with excellent ground-based photometry, and should reduce their uncertainties to less than 0.01 magnitudes. A second benefit is that it will facilitate the comparison of the WFPC2 and ACS photometric systems, which will be important as WFPC2 is phased out and ACS becomes HST's primary imager. Finally, three of the filters will be repeated from my Cycle 12 observations, allowing for a measurement of any change in sensitivity.
Signature splitting in nuclear rotational bands: Neutron i13/2 systematics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mueller, W.F.; Jensen, H.J.; Reviol, W.; Riedinger, L.L.; Yu, C.; Zhang, J.; Nazarewicz, W.; Wyss, R.
1994-01-01
Experimental values of signature splitting in νi 13/2 rotational bands in odd-N even-Z nuclei in the Z=62--78 region are collected and presented. A procedure is introduced to calculate signature splitting within the cranked deformed Woods-Saxon model. In the theoretical treatment, deformation parameters are obtained by minimizing the total Routhians of individual νi 13/2 bands, and the procedure accounts for the possibility that the two signatures have different deformations and pairing gaps. Experimental signature splitting data for νi 13/2 bands in Dy, Er, Yb, Hf, W, and Os nuclei are compared with calculated values. The sensitivity of calculated signature splitting to changes in deformation, pairing, and other model parameters is presented
Quantitative analysis on electric dipole energy in Rashba band splitting.
Hong, Jisook; Rhim, Jun-Won; Kim, Changyoung; Ryong Park, Seung; Hoon Shim, Ji
2015-09-01
We report on quantitative comparison between the electric dipole energy and the Rashba band splitting in model systems of Bi and Sb triangular monolayers under a perpendicular electric field. We used both first-principles and tight binding calculations on p-orbitals with spin-orbit coupling. First-principles calculation shows Rashba band splitting in both systems. It also shows asymmetric charge distributions in the Rashba split bands which are induced by the orbital angular momentum. We calculated the electric dipole energies from coupling of the asymmetric charge distribution and external electric field, and compared it to the Rashba splitting. Remarkably, the total split energy is found to come mostly from the difference in the electric dipole energy for both Bi and Sb systems. A perturbative approach for long wave length limit starting from tight binding calculation also supports that the Rashba band splitting originates mostly from the electric dipole energy difference in the strong atomic spin-orbit coupling regime.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karl Illmensee
2010-04-01
Full Text Available Mammalian embryo splitting has successfully been established in farm animals. Embryo splitting is safely and efficiently used for assisted reproduction in several livestock species. In the mouse, efficient embryo splitting as well as single blastomere cloning have been developed in this animal system. In nonhuman primates embryo splitting has resulted in several pregnancies. Human embryo splitting has been reported recently. Microsurgical embryo splitting under Institutional Review Board approval has been carried out to determine its efficiency for blastocyst development. Embryo splitting at the 6–8 cell stage provided a much higher developmental efficiency compared to splitting at the 2–5 cell stage. Embryo splitting may be advantageous for providing additional embryos to be cryopreserved and for patients with low response to hormonal stimulation in assisted reproduction programs. Social and ethical issues concerning embryo splitting are included regarding ethics committee guidelines. Prognostic perspectives are presented for human embryo splitting in reproductive medicine.
Zero modes and entanglement entropy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yazdi, Yasaman K. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline St. N., Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo,200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada)
2017-04-26
Ultraviolet divergences are widely discussed in studies of entanglement entropy. Also present, but much less understood, are infrared divergences due to zero modes in the field theory. In this note, we discuss the importance of carefully handling zero modes in entanglement entropy. We give an explicit example for a chain of harmonic oscillators in 1D, where a mass regulator is necessary to avoid an infrared divergence due to a zero mode. We also comment on a surprising contribution of the zero mode to the UV-scaling of the entanglement entropy.
Splitting strings on integrable backgrounds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vicedo, Benoit
2011-05-15
We use integrability to construct the general classical splitting string solution on R x S{sup 3}. Namely, given any incoming string solution satisfying a necessary self-intersection property at some given instant in time, we use the integrability of the worldsheet {sigma}-model to construct the pair of outgoing strings resulting from a split. The solution for each outgoing string is expressed recursively through a sequence of dressing transformations, the parameters of which are determined by the solutions to Birkhoff factorization problems in an appropriate real form of the loop group of SL{sub 2}(C). (orig.)
Fine structures on zero-field steps in low-loss Josephson tunnel junctions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Monaco, Roberto; Barbara, Paola; Mygind, Jesper
1993-01-01
The first zero-field step in the current-voltage characteristic of intermediate-length, high-quality, low-loss Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb Josephson tunnel junctions has been carefully investigated as a function of temperature. When decreasing the temperature, a number of structures develop in the form...... of regular and slightly hysteretic steps whose voltage position depends on the junction temperature and length. This phenomenon is interesting for the study of nonlinear dynamics and for application of long Josephson tunnel junctions as microwave and millimeter-wavelength oscillators....
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Veselý, V.; Frantík, P.; Sopek, J.; Malíková, L.; Seitl, Stanislav
2015-01-01
Roč. 38, č. 2 (2015), s. 200-214 ISSN 8756-758X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP104/11/0833 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : near-crack tip fields * Williams series * higher-order terms * stress field * failure criterion * nonlinear zone * quasi-brittle fracture * splitting-bending geometry Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.838, year: 2015
EPR and optical absorption studies of Cr3+ ions in potassium sodium dl-tartrate tetrahydrate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kripal, Ram; Singh, Pragya; Shukla, Santwana
2011-01-01
EPR spectra of Cr 3+ ions doped in potassium sodium dl-tartrate tetrahydrate single crystals are recorded at 77 K. The spin Hamiltonian and zero field parameters g, |D| and |E| are measured from the resonance lines obtained at various rotations of the magnetic field. The values obtained are: g x =1.9257±0.0002, g y =1.9720±0.0002, g z =2.0102±0.0002, |D|=313±2 (x10 -4 ) cm -1 and |E|=101±2 (x10 -4 ) cm -1 . From the results of EPR study, the site symmetry of Cr 3+ ion in the crystal is discussed. The optical absorption at room temperature is also studied. From the observed band positions, the crystal field splitting parameter (D q ) and the Racah inter-electronic repulsion parameters (B and C) are evaluated. The bonding parameters are obtained by correlating optical and EPR data and the nature of bonding in the crystal is discussed. -- Research Highlights: → EPR spectra of Cr 3+ ions doped in potassium sodium dl-tartrate tetrahydrate single crystals are done at 77 K. → The spin Hamiltonian and zero field parameters g, |D| and |E| are measured. From the results of EPR study, the site symmetry of Cr 3+ ion in the crystal is discussed. → The optical absorption at room temperature is also studied and the crystal field splitting parameter (D q ) as well as the Racah inter-electronic repulsion parameters (B and C) is evaluated. → The bonding parameters are obtained by correlating optical and EPR data and the nature of bonding in the crystal is discussed.
Photocatalytic water splitting: Quantitative approaches toward photocatalysis by design
Takanabe, Kazuhiro
2017-10-11
A widely used term, “photocatalysis”, generally addresses photocatalytic (energetically down-hill) and photosynthetic (energetically up-hill) reactions and refers to the use of photonic energy as a driving force for chemical transformations, i.e., electron reorganization to form/break chemical bonds. Although there are many such important reactions, this contribution focuses on the fundamental aspects of photocatalytic water splitting into hydrogen and oxygen by using light from the solar spectrum, which is one of the most investigated photosynthetic reactions. Photocatalytic water splitting using solar energy is considered to be artificial photosynthesis that produces a solar fuel because the reaction mimics nature’s photosynthesis not only in its redox reaction type but also in its thermodynamics (water splitting: 1.23 eV vs. glucose formation: 1.24 eV). To achieve efficient photocatalytic water splitting, all of the parameters, though involved at different timescales and spatial resolutions, should be optimized because the overall efficiency is obtained as the multiplication of all these fundamental efficiencies. The purpose of this review article is to provide the guidelines of a concept, “photocatalysis by design”, which is the opposite of “black box screening”; this concept refers to making quantitative descriptions of the associated physical and chemical properties to determine which events/parameters have the most impact on improving the overall photocatalytic performance, in contrast to arbitrarily ranking different photocatalyst materials. First, the properties that can be quantitatively measured or calculated are identified. Second, the quantities of these identified properties are determined by performing adequate measurements and/or calculations. Third, the obtained values of these properties are integrated into equations so that the kinetic/energetic bottlenecks of specific properties/processes can be determined, and the properties can
Photocatalytic water splitting: Quantitative approaches toward photocatalysis by design
Takanabe, Kazuhiro
2017-01-01
A widely used term, “photocatalysis”, generally addresses photocatalytic (energetically down-hill) and photosynthetic (energetically up-hill) reactions and refers to the use of photonic energy as a driving force for chemical transformations, i.e., electron reorganization to form/break chemical bonds. Although there are many such important reactions, this contribution focuses on the fundamental aspects of photocatalytic water splitting into hydrogen and oxygen by using light from the solar spectrum, which is one of the most investigated photosynthetic reactions. Photocatalytic water splitting using solar energy is considered to be artificial photosynthesis that produces a solar fuel because the reaction mimics nature’s photosynthesis not only in its redox reaction type but also in its thermodynamics (water splitting: 1.23 eV vs. glucose formation: 1.24 eV). To achieve efficient photocatalytic water splitting, all of the parameters, though involved at different timescales and spatial resolutions, should be optimized because the overall efficiency is obtained as the multiplication of all these fundamental efficiencies. The purpose of this review article is to provide the guidelines of a concept, “photocatalysis by design”, which is the opposite of “black box screening”; this concept refers to making quantitative descriptions of the associated physical and chemical properties to determine which events/parameters have the most impact on improving the overall photocatalytic performance, in contrast to arbitrarily ranking different photocatalyst materials. First, the properties that can be quantitatively measured or calculated are identified. Second, the quantities of these identified properties are determined by performing adequate measurements and/or calculations. Third, the obtained values of these properties are integrated into equations so that the kinetic/energetic bottlenecks of specific properties/processes can be determined, and the properties can
Marginalized zero-inflated negative binomial regression with application to dental caries.
Preisser, John S; Das, Kalyan; Long, D Leann; Divaris, Kimon
2016-05-10
The zero-inflated negative binomial regression model (ZINB) is often employed in diverse fields such as dentistry, health care utilization, highway safety, and medicine to examine relationships between exposures of interest and overdispersed count outcomes exhibiting many zeros. The regression coefficients of ZINB have latent class interpretations for a susceptible subpopulation at risk for the disease/condition under study with counts generated from a negative binomial distribution and for a non-susceptible subpopulation that provides only zero counts. The ZINB parameters, however, are not well-suited for estimating overall exposure effects, specifically, in quantifying the effect of an explanatory variable in the overall mixture population. In this paper, a marginalized zero-inflated negative binomial regression (MZINB) model for independent responses is proposed to model the population marginal mean count directly, providing straightforward inference for overall exposure effects based on maximum likelihood estimation. Through simulation studies, the finite sample performance of MZINB is compared with marginalized zero-inflated Poisson, Poisson, and negative binomial regression. The MZINB model is applied in the evaluation of a school-based fluoride mouthrinse program on dental caries in 677 children. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
García, Isaac A.; Llibre, Jaume; Maza, Susanna
2018-06-01
In this work we consider real analytic functions , where , Ω is a bounded open subset of , is an interval containing the origin, are parameters, and ε is a small parameter. We study the branching of the zero-set of at multiple points when the parameter ε varies. We apply the obtained results to improve the classical averaging theory for computing T-periodic solutions of λ-families of analytic T-periodic ordinary differential equations defined on , using the displacement functions defined by these equations. We call the coefficients in the Taylor expansion of in powers of ε the averaged functions. The main contribution consists in analyzing the role that have the multiple zeros of the first non-zero averaged function. The outcome is that these multiple zeros can be of two different classes depending on whether the zeros belong or not to the analytic set defined by the real variety associated to the ideal generated by the averaged functions in the Noetheriang ring of all the real analytic functions at . We bound the maximum number of branches of isolated zeros that can bifurcate from each multiple zero z 0. Sometimes these bounds depend on the cardinalities of minimal bases of the former ideal. Several examples illustrate our results and they are compared with the classical theory, branching theory and also under the light of singularity theory of smooth maps. The examples range from polynomial vector fields to Abel differential equations and perturbed linear centers.
ZERO IMPACT PARAMETER WHITE DWARF COLLISIONS IN FLASH
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hawley, W. P.; Athanassiadou, T.; Timmes, F. X.
2012-01-01
We systematically explore zero impact parameter collisions of white dwarfs (WDs) with the Eulerian adaptive grid code FLASH for 0.64 + 0.64 M ☉ and 0.81 + 0.81 M ☉ mass pairings. Our models span a range of effective linear spatial resolutions from 5.2 × 10 7 to 1.2 × 10 7 cm. However, even the highest resolution models do not quite achieve strict numerical convergence, due to the challenge of properly resolving small-scale burning and energy transport. The lack of strict numerical convergence from these idealized configurations suggests that quantitative predictions of the ejected elemental abundances that are generated by binary WD collision and merger simulations should be viewed with caution. Nevertheless, the convergence trends do allow some patterns to be discerned. We find that the 0.64 + 0.64 M ☉ head-on collision model produces 0.32 M ☉ of 56 Ni and 0.38 M ☉ of 28 Si, while the 0.81 + 0.81 M ☉ head-on collision model produces 0.39 M ☉ of 56 Ni and 0.55 M ☉ of 28 Si at the highest spatial resolutions. Both mass pairings produce ∼0.2 M ☉ of unburned 12 C+ 16 O. We also find the 0.64 + 0.64 M ☉ head-on collision begins carbon burning in the central region of the stalled shock between the two WDs, while the more energetic 0.81 + 0.81 M ☉ head-on collision raises the initial post-shock temperature enough to burn the entire stalled shock region to nuclear statistical equilibrium.
Su, Yanfeng; Cai, Zhijian; Liu, Quan; Lu, Yifan; Guo, Peiliang; Shi, Lingyan; Wu, Jianhong
2018-04-01
In this paper, an autostereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) display system based on synthetic hologram reconstruction is proposed and implemented. The system uses a single phase-only spatial light modulator to load the synthetic hologram of the left and right stereo images, and the parallax angle between two reconstructed stereo images is enlarged by a grating to meet the split angle requirement of normal stereoscopic vision. To realize the crosstalk-free autostereoscopic 3D display with high light utilization efficiency, the groove parameters of the grating are specifically designed by the rigorous coupled-wave theory for suppressing the zero-order diffraction, and then the zero-order nulled grating is fabricated by the holographic lithography and the ion beam etching. Furthermore, the diffraction efficiency of the fabricated grating is measured under the illumination of a laser beam with a wavelength of 532 nm. Finally, the experimental verification system for the proposed autostereoscopic 3D display is presented. The experimental results prove that the proposed system is able to generate stereoscopic 3D images with good performances.
Lai, Ya-Yuan; Chang, Yu-Chang; Chen, Jyh-Horung; Wang, Shin-Shin; Tung, Jo-Yu
2016-03-21
The inner C-benzyl- and C-o-xylyl (or m-xylyl, p-xylyl)-substituted cobalt(ii) complexes of a 2-N-substituted N-confused porphyrin were synthesized from the reaction of 2-NC3H5NCTPPH (1) and CoCl2·6H2O in toluene (or o-xylene, m-xylene, p-xylene). The crystal structures of diamagnetic chloro(2-aza-2-allyl-5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21-hydrogen-21-carbaporphyrinato-N,N',N'')zinc(ii) [Zn(2-NC3H5-21-H-NCTPP)Cl; 3 ] and paramagnetic chloro(2-aza-2-allyl-5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21-benzyl-21-carbaporphyrinato-N,N',N'')cobalt(ii) [Co(2-NC3H5-21-CH2C6H5NCTPP)Cl; 7], and chloro(2-aza-2-allyl-5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21-Y-xylyl-21-carbaporphyrinato-N,N',N'')cobalt(ii) [Co(2-NC3H5-21-Y-CH2C6H4CH3NCTPP)Cl] [Y = o (8), m (9), p (10)] were determined. The coordination sphere around the Zn(2+) (or Co(2+)) ion in 3 (or 7-10) is a distorted tetrahedron (DT). The free energy of activation at the coalescence temperature Tc for the exchange of phenyl ortho protons o-H (26) with o-H (22) in 3 in a CDCl3 solvent is found to be ΔG = 61.4 kJ mol(-1) through (1)H NMR temperature-dependent measurements. The axial zero-field splitting parameter |D| was found to vary from 35.6 cm(-1) in 7 (or 30.7 cm(-1) in 8) to 42.0 cm(-1) in 9 and 46.9 cm(-1) in 10 through paramagnetic susceptibility measurements. The magnitude of |D| can be related to the coordination sphere at the cobalt sites.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jullien, R.; Pfeuty, P.; Fields, J.N.; Doniach, S.
1978-01-01
A zero-temperature real-space renormalization-group method is presented and applied to the quantum Ising model with a transverse field in one dimension. The transition between the low-field and high-field regimes is studied. Magnetization components, spin correlation functions, and critical exponents are derived and checked against the exact results. It is shown that increasing the size of the blocks in the iterative procedure yields more accurate results, especially for the critical ''magnetic'' exponents near the transition
Mode splitting effect in FEMs with oversized Bragg resonators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peskov, N. Yu.; Sergeev, A. S. [Institute of Applied Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Kaminsky, A. K.; Perelstein, E. A.; Sedykh, S. N. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Kuzikov, S. V. [Institute of Applied Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Nizhegorodsky State University, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)
2016-07-15
Splitting of the fundamental mode in an oversized Bragg resonator with a step of the corrugation phase, which operates over the feedback loop involving the waveguide waves of different transverse structures, was found to be the result of mutual influence of the neighboring zones of the Bragg scattering. Theoretical description of this effect was developed within the framework of the advanced (four-wave) coupled-wave approach. It is shown that mode splitting reduces the selective properties, restricts the output power, and decreases the stability of the narrow-band operating regime in the free-electron maser (FEM) oscillators based on such resonators. The results of the theoretical analysis were confirmed by 3D simulations and “cold” microwave tests. Experimental data on Bragg resonators with different parameters in a 30-GHz FEM are presented. The possibility of reducing the mode splitting by profiling the corrugation parameters is shown. The use of the mode splitting effect for the output power enhancement by passive compression of the double-frequency pulse generated in the FEM with such a resonator is discussed.
Study of Rare Events at the Split Field Magnet
2002-01-01
The aim of the experiment is the study of full events associated with special, rare triggers using the almost 4 @p geometry of the improved Split Field Magnet (SFM) detector. Two triggers are used: a) a trigger on an electron produced around 90|0 with a transverse momentum p^t @$>$ 0.5 GeV/c; b) a trigger on very high p^t hadrons (p^t $>$ 5 GeV/c) at @Q @C 45|0, using the SFM chambers to define roads pointing to the interaction region. In the first case, the associated event will be studied to determine the origin of direct electron production in charmed particle production. In the second case, the production of jets or jet-like objects when a high p^t particle is produced in pp collisions will be investigated. To carry out this program, the detection system consists of : \\item a) An improved SFM detector chamber system and layout to detect more of the produced particles and to simplify the pattern recognition problem in multiparticle events. \\item b) An improved program chain for the analysis of SFM events, ...
On the zero point energy of the electromagnetic field in the presence of material media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferreira, L.A.
1980-12-01
The Van der Waals force between two semi-infinite material media separated by a piece of a third material is calculated. In this calculation, a generalization of some works on this theme is made, considering the radiation field delay effect, and impose no kind of electric and magnetic permeability dependence on the field frequency. The zero point energy of electromagnetic field in the presence of rectangular cavities with perfectly conducting walls (epsilon →i infinite) and/or infinitely permeable walls (μ→ infinite), is also calculated. Two kinds of regularization are made. In view of the results obtained modifications in the Casimir's model for the electron are suggested [pt
Tantalum nitride for photocatalytic water splitting: concept and applications
Nurlaela, Ela
2016-10-12
Along with many other solar energy conversion processes, research on photocatalytic water splitting to generate hydrogen and oxygen has experienced rapid major development over the past years. Developing an efficient visible-light-responsive photocatalyst has been one of the targets of such research efforts. In this regard, nitride materials, particularly Ta3N5, have been the subject of investigation due to their promising properties. This review focuses on the fundamental parameters involved in the photocatalytic processes targeting overall water splitting using Ta3N5 as a model photocatalyst. The discussion primarily focuses on relevant parameters that are involved in photon absorption, exciton separation, carrier diffusion, carrier transport, catalytic efficiency, and mass transfer of the reactants. An overview of collaborative experimental and theoretical approaches to achieve efficient photocatalytic water splitting using Ta3N5 is discussed.
Tantalum nitride for photocatalytic water splitting: concept and applications
Nurlaela, Ela; Ziani, Ahmed; Takanabe, Kazuhiro
2016-01-01
Along with many other solar energy conversion processes, research on photocatalytic water splitting to generate hydrogen and oxygen has experienced rapid major development over the past years. Developing an efficient visible-light-responsive photocatalyst has been one of the targets of such research efforts. In this regard, nitride materials, particularly Ta3N5, have been the subject of investigation due to their promising properties. This review focuses on the fundamental parameters involved in the photocatalytic processes targeting overall water splitting using Ta3N5 as a model photocatalyst. The discussion primarily focuses on relevant parameters that are involved in photon absorption, exciton separation, carrier diffusion, carrier transport, catalytic efficiency, and mass transfer of the reactants. An overview of collaborative experimental and theoretical approaches to achieve efficient photocatalytic water splitting using Ta3N5 is discussed.
Solving Schwinger-Dyson equations by truncation in zero-dimensional scalar quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okopinska, A.
1991-01-01
Three sets of Schwinger-Dyson equations, for all Green's functions, for connected Green's functions, and for proper vertices, are considered in scalar quantum field theory. A truncation scheme applied to the three sets gives three different approximation series for Green's functions. For the theory in zero-dimensional space-time the results for respective two-point Green's functions are compared with the exact value calculated numerically. The best convergence of the truncation scheme is obtained for the case of proper vertices
Delocalization of Coherent Triplet Excitons in Linear Rigid Rod Conjugated Oligomers.
Hintze, Christian; Korf, Patrick; Degen, Frank; Schütze, Friederike; Mecking, Stefan; Steiner, Ulrich E; Drescher, Malte
2017-02-02
In this work, the triplet state delocalization in a series of monodisperse oligo(p-phenyleneethynylene)s (OPEs) is studied by pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and pulsed electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) determining zero-field splitting, optical spin polarization, and proton hyperfine couplings. Neither the zero-field splitting parameters nor the optical spin polarization change significantly with OPE chain length, in contrast to the hyperfine coupling constants, which showed a systematic decrease with chain length n according to a 2/(1 + n) decay law. The results provide striking evidence for the Frenkel-type nature of the triplet excitons exhibiting full coherent delocalization in the OPEs under investigation with up to five OPE repeat units and with a spin density distribution described by a nodeless particle in the box wave function. The same model is successfully applied to recently published data on π-conjugated porphyrin oligomers.
Strong CP, flavor, and twisted split fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harnik, Roni; Perez, Gilad; Schwartz, Matthew D.; Shirman, Yuri
2005-01-01
We present a natural solution to the strong CP problem in the context of split fermions. By assuming CP is spontaneously broken in the bulk, a weak CKM phase is created in the standard model due to a twisting in flavor space of the bulk fermion wavefunctions. But the strong CP phase remains zero, being essentially protected by parity in the bulk and CP on the branes. As always in models of spontaneous CP breaking, radiative corrections to theta bar from the standard model are tiny, but even higher dimension operators are not that dangerous. The twisting phenomenon was recently shown to be generic, and not to interfere with the way that split fermions naturally weaves small numbers into the standard model. It follows that out approach to strong CP is compatible with flavor, and we sketch a comprehensive model. We also look at deconstructed version of this setup which provides a viable 4D model of spontaneous CP breaking which is not in the Nelson-Barr class. (author)
Preethi, V; Kanmani, S
2016-10-01
Hydrogen production by gas-phase photocatalytic splitting of Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) was investigated on four semiconductor photocatalysts including CuGa1.6Fe0.4O2, ZnFe2O3, (CdS + ZnS)/Fe2O3 and Ce/TiO2. The CdS and ZnS coated core shell particles (CdS + ZnS)/Fe2O3 shows the highest rate of hydrogen (H2) production under optimized conditions. Packed bed tubular reactor was used to study the performance of prepared photocatalysts. Selection of the best packing material is a key for maximum removal efficiency. Cheap, lightweight and easily adsorbing vermiculate materials were used as a novel packing material and were found to be effective in splitting H2S. Effect of various operating parameters like flow rate, sulphide concentration, catalyst dosage, light irradiation were tested and optimized for maximum H2 conversion of 92% from industrial waste H2S. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
SplitRacer - a new Semi-Automatic Tool to Quantify And Interpret Teleseismic Shear-Wave Splitting
Reiss, M. C.; Rumpker, G.
2017-12-01
simultaneously minimizing their transverse energy - this includes the analysis of null measurements. vi) comparison of results with theoretical splitting parameters determined for one, two, or continuously-varying anisotropic layer(s). Examples for the application of SplitRacer will be presented.
ZERO IMPACT PARAMETER WHITE DWARF COLLISIONS IN FLASH
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hawley, W. P.; Athanassiadou, T.; Timmes, F. X., E-mail: Wendy.Hawley@asu.edu [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)
2012-11-01
We systematically explore zero impact parameter collisions of white dwarfs (WDs) with the Eulerian adaptive grid code FLASH for 0.64 + 0.64 M {sub Sun} and 0.81 + 0.81 M {sub Sun} mass pairings. Our models span a range of effective linear spatial resolutions from 5.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} to 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} cm. However, even the highest resolution models do not quite achieve strict numerical convergence, due to the challenge of properly resolving small-scale burning and energy transport. The lack of strict numerical convergence from these idealized configurations suggests that quantitative predictions of the ejected elemental abundances that are generated by binary WD collision and merger simulations should be viewed with caution. Nevertheless, the convergence trends do allow some patterns to be discerned. We find that the 0.64 + 0.64 M {sub Sun} head-on collision model produces 0.32 M {sub Sun} of {sup 56}Ni and 0.38 M {sub Sun} of {sup 28}Si, while the 0.81 + 0.81 M {sub Sun} head-on collision model produces 0.39 M {sub Sun} of {sup 56}Ni and 0.55 M {sub Sun} of {sup 28}Si at the highest spatial resolutions. Both mass pairings produce {approx}0.2 M {sub Sun} of unburned {sup 12}C+{sup 16}O. We also find the 0.64 + 0.64 M {sub Sun} head-on collision begins carbon burning in the central region of the stalled shock between the two WDs, while the more energetic 0.81 + 0.81 M {sub Sun} head-on collision raises the initial post-shock temperature enough to burn the entire stalled shock region to nuclear statistical equilibrium.
Toward an interstellar mission: Zeroing in on the zero-point-field inertia resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haisch, Bernhard; Rueda, Alfonso
2000-01-01
While still an admittedly remote possibility, the concept of an interstellar mission has become a legitimate topic for scientific discussion as evidenced by several recent NASA activities and programs. One approach is to extrapolate present-day technologies by orders of magnitude; the other is to find new regimes in physics and to search for possible new laws of physics. Recent work on the zero-point field (ZPF), or electromagnetic quantum vacuum, is promising in regard to the latter, especially concerning the possibility that the inertia of matter may, at least in part, be attributed to interaction between the quarks and electrons in matter and the ZPF. A NASA-funded study (independent of the BPP program) of this concept has been underway since 1996 at the Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center in Palo Alto and the California State University at Long Beach. We report on a new development resulting from this effort: that for the specific case of the electron, a resonance for the inertia-generating process at the Compton frequency would simultaneously explain both the inertial mass of the electron and the de Broglie wavelength of a moving electron as first measured by Davisson and Germer in 1927. This line of investigation is leading to very suggestive connections between electrodynamics, inertia, gravitation and the wave nature of matter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elangovan Suma, Puri K Sanjeev
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Purpose: Optical coherence tomography (OCT and Scanning LASER polarimetry (GDX-VCC are newer techniques to analyse retinal nerve fibre loss in glaucoma. This study aims to evaluate the relationship between the Retinal Nerve Fibre Layer(RNFL parameters measured using Stratus-OCT and GDx-VCC and visual field loss by Octopus interzeag perimetry in established glaucoma patients in South Indian Population. Materials and methods: Prospectively planned cross sectional study of 67 eyes of 34 established glaucoma patients on medical management. The mean age of patients was 46.911 years (SD+13.531. A complete ophthalmic examination, automated perimetry with octopus interzeag 1-2-3 perimeter, retinal nerve fibre analysis with GDx VCC and Stratus OCT was done. The differences between the mean RNFL parameters in the presence or absence of field defects were evaluated. Results: The data analysed were mean deviation, loss variance, OCT total average nerve fibre thickness, GDX VCC- TSNIT average and Nerve fibre indicator (NFI.The data were split into two subgroups on the basis of presence or absence of visual field defect and analysed. The difference between the mean value of NFI between the subgroups was highly significant with a p value < 0.01.The OCT parameter Total average nerve fiber layer thickness differed significantly between the two subgroups (p value <0.05. The mean GDx TSNIT average did not differ significantly between the two subgroups. Conclusion: The total average nerve fibre thickness by OCT correlated better with visual field loss than the GDX TSNIT average .Among the GDx parameters, the NFI was found to be a better indicator of visual field damage than the average thickness.
Finite frequency shear wave splitting tomography: a model space search approach
Mondal, P.; Long, M. D.
2017-12-01
Observations of seismic anisotropy provide key constraints on past and present mantle deformation. A common method for upper mantle anisotropy is to measure shear wave splitting parameters (delay time and fast direction). However, the interpretation is not straightforward, because splitting measurements represent an integration of structure along the ray path. A tomographic approach that allows for localization of anisotropy is desirable; however, tomographic inversion for anisotropic structure is a daunting task, since 21 parameters are needed to describe general anisotropy. Such a large parameter space does not allow a straightforward application of tomographic inversion. Building on previous work on finite frequency shear wave splitting tomography, this study aims to develop a framework for SKS splitting tomography with a new parameterization of anisotropy and a model space search approach. We reparameterize the full elastic tensor, reducing the number of parameters to three (a measure of strength based on symmetry considerations for olivine, plus the dip and azimuth of the fast symmetry axis). We compute Born-approximation finite frequency sensitivity kernels relating model perturbations to splitting intensity observations. The strong dependence of the sensitivity kernels on the starting anisotropic model, and thus the strong non-linearity of the inverse problem, makes a linearized inversion infeasible. Therefore, we implement a Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique in the inversion procedure. We have performed tests with synthetic data sets to evaluate computational costs and infer the resolving power of our algorithm for synthetic models with multiple anisotropic layers. Our technique can resolve anisotropic parameters on length scales of ˜50 km for realistic station and event configurations for dense broadband experiments. We are proceeding towards applications to real data sets, with an initial focus on the High Lava Plains of Oregon.
Grand unification in higher dimensions with split supersymmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schuster, Philip C.
2006-01-01
We investigate gauge coupling unification in higher dimensional GUT models with split supersymmetry. We focus on 5d and 6d orbifold GUTs, which permit a simple solution to several problems of 4D GUTs as well as control over GUT scale threshold corrections. In orbifold GUTs, calculable threshold corrections can raise or lower the prediction for α s (M Z ) in a way that depends on the location of Higgs fields. On the other hand, split supersymmetry lowers the prediction for α s (M Z ). Consequently, split supersymmetry changes the preferred location of the Higgs fields in orbifold GUTs. In the simplest models, we find that gauge coupling unification favors higgs doublets that live on the orbifold fixed points instead of in the bulk. In addition, relatively high scales of supersymmetry breaking of 10 10±2 GeV are generically favored
Estimation of Missing Observations in Two-Level Split-Plot Designs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Almimi, Ashraf A.; Kulahci, Murat; Montgomery, Douglas C.
2008-01-01
Inserting estimates for the missing observations from split-plot designs restores their balanced or orthogonal structure and alleviates the difficulties in the statistical analysis. In this article, we extend a method due to Draper and Stoneman to estimate the missing observations from unreplicated...... two-level factorial and fractional factorial split-plot (FSP and FFSP) designs. The missing observations, which can either be from the same whole plot, from different whole plots, or comprise entire whole plots, are estimated by equating to zero a number of specific contrast columns equal...... to the number of the missing observations. These estimates are inserted into the design table and the estimates for the remaining effects (or alias chains of effects as the case with FFSP designs) are plotted on two half-normal plots: one for the whole-plot effects and the other for the subplot effects...
Badler, N. I.; Fishwick, P.; Taft, N.; Agrawala, M.
1985-01-01
The use of computer graphics to simulate the movement of articulated animals and mechanisms has a number of uses ranging over many fields. Human motion simulation systems can be useful in education, medicine, anatomy, physiology, and dance. In biomechanics, computer displays help to understand and analyze performance. Simulations can be used to help understand the effect of external or internal forces. Similarly, zero-gravity simulation systems should provide a means of designing and exploring the capabilities of hypothetical zero-gravity situations before actually carrying out such actions. The advantage of using a simulation of the motion is that one can experiment with variations of a maneuver before attempting to teach it to an individual. The zero-gravity motion simulation problem can be divided into two broad areas: human movement and behavior in zero-gravity, and simulation of articulated mechanisms.
Zero curvature condition of OSp(2/2) and the associated supergravity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, A.; Huang, W.J.; Roy, S.
1992-01-01
In this paper, the N = 2 fermionic extensions of the KdV equations are derived from the zero curvature condition associated with the graded Lie algebra of OSp(2/2). These equations lead to two bi-Hamiltonian systems, one of which is supersymmetric. The authors also derive the one-parameter family of N = 2 supersymmetric KdV equations without a bi-Hamiltonian structure in this approach. Following the authors' earlier proposal, the authors interpret the zero curvature conditions as a gauge anomaly equation which brings out the underlying current algebra for the corresponding 2D supergravity theory. This current algebra is then used to obtain the operator product expansions of various fields of this theory
Deriving force field parameters for coordination complexes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Norrby, Per-Ola; Brandt, Peter
2001-01-01
The process of deriving molecular mechanics force fields for coordination complexes is outlined. Force field basics are introduced with an emphasis on special requirements for metal complexes. The review is then focused on how to set up the initial model, define the target, refine the parameters......, and validate the final force field, Alternatives to force field derivation are discussed briefly....
Fault Detection Using the Zero Crossing Rate | Osuagwu | Nigerian ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A method of fault detection based on the zero crossing rate of the signal, Z1, and the zero crossing rate of the first order difference signal. Z2, is presented. It is shown that the parameter pair (Z1, Z2) possesses adequate discriminating potential to classify a signature as good or defective. The parameter pair also carries ...
Yang-Lee zeros for a Potts model of helix-coil transition with nontrivial topology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ananikian, N.; Ananikyan, L.; Artuso, R.; Sargsyan, K.
2007-07-01
The Yang-Lee partition function zeros of the Q-state Potts model on a zigzag ladder are studied by a transfer-matrix approach. This Q-state model has a non-trivial topology induced by three-site interactions on a zigzag ladder and is proposed as a description of helix-coil transition in homo-polymers. The Yang-Lee zeros are associated to complex values of the solvent-related coupling constant K (magnetic field) and they are exactly derived for arbitrary values of the system parameters: Q, J (coupling constant of hydrogen binding) and temperature. It is shown that there is only a quasi-phase transition for all temperatures. The densities of the Yang-Lee zeros are singular at the edge singularity points and the critical exponent σ = -1/2. (author)
Split supersymmetry in brane models
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Type-I string theory in the presence of internal magnetic fields provides a concrete realization of split ... quantum picture of the Universe. It was then ... where the integers m, n correspond to the respective magnetic and electric charges; m is the ...
Zero Modes and Global Antiferromagnetism in Strained Graphene
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bitan Roy
2014-05-01
Full Text Available A novel magnetic ground state is reported for the Hubbard Hamiltonian in strained graphene. When the chemical potential lies close to the Dirac point, the ground state exhibits locally both the Néel and ferromagnetic orders, even for weak Hubbard interaction. Whereas the Néel order parameter remains of the same sign in the entire system, the magnetization at the boundary takes the opposite sign from the bulk. The total magnetization vanishes this way, and the magnetic ground state is globally only an antiferromagnet. This peculiar ordering stems from the nature of the strain-induced single-particle zero-energy states, which have support on one sublattice of the honeycomb lattice in the bulk, and on the other sublattice near the boundary of a finite system. We support our claim with the self-consistent numerical calculation of the order parameters, as well as by the Monte Carlo simulations of the Hubbard model in both uniformly and nonuniformly strained honeycomb lattice. The present result is contrasted with the magnetic ground state of the same Hubbard model in the presence of a true magnetic field (and for vanishing Zeeman coupling, which is exclusively Néel ordered, with zero local magnetization everywhere in the system.
ISOSPIN BREAKING AND THE CHIRAL CONDENSATE.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
CREUTZ, M.
2005-07-25
With two degenerate quarks, the chiral condensate exhibits a jump as the quark masses pass through zero. I discuss how this single transition splits into two Ising like transitions when the quarks are made non-degenerate. The order parameter is the expectation of the neutral pion field. The transitions represent long distance coherent phenomena occurring without the Dirac operator having vanishingly small eigenvalues.
Design-Parameters Setup for Power-Split Dual-Regime IVT
Preda, Ion; Ciolan, Gheorghe; Covaciu, Dinu
2017-10-01
To analyze the working possibilities of power-split infinitely variable transmissions (IVTs) it is necessary to follow a systematic approach. The method proposed in this paper consists of generating a block diagram of the transmission and then, based on this diagram, to derive the kinematics and dynamics equations of the transmission. For an actual numerical case, the derived equations are used to find characteristic values of the transmission components (gear and chain drives, planetary units) necessary to calculate the speed ratios, the speeds, torques and powers acting on the shafts and coupling (control) elements, and even to estimate the overall efficiency of the transmission.
Rabi splitting in an acoustic cavity embedded plate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ni, Xu; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Ze-Guo; Zheng, Li-Yang; Xu, Ye-Long; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yan-Feng
2014-01-01
We design a structure to realize Rabi splitting and Rabi oscillation in acoustics. We develop rigorous analytical models to analyze the splitting effect from the aspect of phase matching, and from the aspect of mode coupling using a coupled mode model. In this model, we discover that the splitting effect is caused by the coupling of the Fabry–Perot fundamental mode with the resonant mode of an artificial acoustic ‘atom’. We then extract the coupling strength and analyze the impact of structural parameters on it. In addition, we demonstrate Rabi oscillation in the time domain. Such quantum phenomena in the classical regime may have potential applications in the design of novel ultrasonic devices.
First and second order operator splitting methods for the phase field crystal equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Hyun Geun; Shin, Jaemin; Lee, June-Yub
2015-01-01
In this paper, we present operator splitting methods for solving the phase field crystal equation which is a model for the microstructural evolution of two-phase systems on atomic length and diffusive time scales. A core idea of the methods is to decompose the original equation into linear and nonlinear subequations, in which the linear subequation has a closed-form solution in the Fourier space. We apply a nonlinear Newton-type iterative method to solve the nonlinear subequation at the implicit time level and thus a considerably large time step can be used. By combining these subequations, we achieve the first- and second-order accuracy in time. We present numerical experiments to show the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed methods
Energy-level splitting of multicharged ions due to interaction with own radiation field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gajnutdinov, R.Kh.; Kalashnikov, K.K.
1991-01-01
The overlapping of the energy levels of He-like uranium states with identical principal quantum numbers is investigated. Results are presented of a numerical calculation of the states produced as a result of mixing of the 2s 1/2 8p 1/2 and 2p 1/2 8p 1/2 states and of the respective spectral lines. It is shown that the interaction between the ion and its own radiation field splits each of the overlapping energy levels into several sublevels. The sublevels are isolated from each to other such an extent that interference effects become insignificant. The shapes of the spectral lines differ pronouncedly from the Lorentz shape and many of the line are anomaously narrow
Zero inflated negative binomial-Sushila distribution and its application
Yamrubboon, Darika; Thongteeraparp, Ampai; Bodhisuwan, Winai; Jampachaisri, Katechan
2017-11-01
A new zero inflated distribution is proposed in this work, namely the zero inflated negative binomial-Sushila distribution. The new distribution which is a mixture of the Bernoulli and negative binomial-Sushila distributions is an alternative distribution for the excessive zero counts and over-dispersion. Some characteristics of the proposed distribution are derived including probability mass function, mean and variance. The parameter estimation of the zero inflated negative binomial-Sushila distribution is also implemented by maximum likelihood method. In application, the proposed distribution can provide a better fit than traditional distributions: zero inflated Poisson and zero inflated negative binomial distributions.
Topacli, C
1997-01-01
The non-resonant magnetically modulated microwave response measurements of powdered Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O samples using the conventional EPR spectrometer are presented. After cooling in a near zero magnetic field, all samples exhibited a sharp (about 12-37 mu T) microwave absorption with applied magnetic field, superimposed on the widely observed and well explained broader minimum. The width of the absorption maximum is found to be dependent on the particle size. It becomes broader with decreasing particle size. The effects of particle size and field history on the peak are given in detail and some possible mechanisms to account for the observations are presented. (author)
Nisar, Ubaid Ahmed; Ashraf, Waqas; Qamar, Shamsul
In this article, one and two-dimensional hydrodynamical models of semiconductor devices are numerically investigated. The models treat the propagation of electrons in a semiconductor device as the flow of a charged compressible fluid. It plays an important role in predicting the behavior of electron flow in semiconductor devices. Mathematically, the governing equations form a convection-diffusion type system with a right hand side describing the relaxation effects and interaction with a self consistent electric field. The proposed numerical scheme is a splitting scheme based on the kinetic flux-vector splitting (KFVS) method for the hyperbolic step, and a semi-implicit Runge-Kutta method for the relaxation step. The KFVS method is based on the direct splitting of macroscopic flux functions of the system on the cell interfaces. The second order accuracy of the scheme is achieved by using MUSCL-type initial reconstruction and Runge-Kutta time stepping method. Several case studies are considered. For validation, the results of current scheme are compared with those obtained from the splitting scheme based on the NT central scheme. The effects of various parameters such as low field mobility, device length, lattice temperature and voltage are analyzed. The accuracy, efficiency and simplicity of the proposed KFVS scheme validates its generic applicability to the given model equations. A two dimensional simulation is also performed by KFVS method for a MESFET device, producing results in good agreement with those obtained by NT-central scheme.
Magnetic ground state of low-doped manganites probed by spin dynamics under magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kober, P.; Hennion, M.; Moussa, F.; Ivanov, A.; Regnault, L.-P.; Pinsard, L.; Revcolevschi, A.
2004-01-01
We present a neutron scattering study of spin dynamics under magnetic field in La 0.9 Ca 0.1 MnO 3 . In zero field, the spin wave spectrum consists of two branches, a high and a low-energy one. In applied field, the high-energy branch splits into two branches due to twinned domains. The gap of the new intermediate-energy branch strongly decreases above a spin-flop transition that occurs for H//b and H>2 T. Furthermore, this branch, that we could attribute to the twinned domain H//b, shows a q-discontinuity under field. The low-energy branch, measurable only around ferromagnetic zone centers at H=0, appears at all q-values under field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Jungsoo; Song, Soonho; Lee, Kyo Seung
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Model-based control of dual-loop EGR system is performed. • EGR split index is developed to provide non-dimensional index for optimization. • EGR rates are calibrated using EGR split index at specific operating conditions. • Multi-objective Pareto optimization is performed to minimize NO X and BSFC. • Optimum split strategies are suggested with LP-rich dual-loop EGR at high load. - Abstract: A proposed dual-loop exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) system that combines the features of high-pressure (HP) and low-pressure (LP) systems is considered a key technology for improving the combustion behavior of diesel engines. The fraction of HP and LP flows, known as the EGR split, for a given dual-loop EGR rate play an important role in determining the engine performance and emission characteristics. Therefore, identifying the proper EGR split is important for the engine optimization and calibration processes, which affect the EGR response and deNO X efficiencies. The objective of this research was to develop a dual-loop EGR split strategy using numerical analysis and one-dimensional (1D) cycle simulation. A control system was modeled by coupling the 1D cycle simulation and the control logic. An EGR split index was developed to investigate the HP/LP split effects on the engine performance and emissions. Using the model-based control system, a multi-objective Pareto (MOP) analysis was used to minimize the NO X formation and fuel consumption through optimized engine operating parameters. The MOP analysis was performed using a response surface model extracted from Latin hypercube sampling as a fractional factorial design of experiment. By using an LP rich dual-loop EGR, a high EGR rate was attained at low, medium, and high engine speeds, increasing the applicable load ranges compared to base conditions
An upwind, kinetic flux-vector splitting method for flows in chemical and thermal non-equilibrium
Eppard, W. M.; Grossman, B.
1993-01-01
We have developed new upwind kinetic difference schemes for flows with non-equilibrium thermodynamics and chemistry. These schemes are derived from the Boltzmann equation with the resulting Euler schemes developed as moments of the discretized Boltzmann scheme with a locally Maxwellian velocity distribution. Splitting the velocity distribution at the Boltzmann level is seen to result in a flux-split Euler scheme and is called Kinetic Flux Vector Splitting (KFVS). Extensions to flows with finite-rate chemistry and vibrational relaxation is accomplished utilizing nonequilibrium kinetic theory. Computational examples are presented comparing KFVS with the schemes of Van Leer and Roe for a quasi-one-dimensional flow through a supersonic diffuser, inviscid flow through two-dimensional inlet, and viscous flow over a cone at zero angle-of-attack. Calculations are also shown for the transonic flow over a bump in a channel and the transonic flow over an NACA 0012 airfoil. The results show that even though the KFVS scheme is a Riemann solver at the kinetic level, its behavior at the Euler level is more similar to the existing flux-vector splitting algorithms than to the flux-difference splitting scheme of Roe.
SplitDist—Calculating Split-Distances for Sets of Trees
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mailund, T
2004-01-01
We present a tool for comparing a set of input trees, calculating for each pair of trees the split-distances, i.e., the number of splits in one tree not present in the other.......We present a tool for comparing a set of input trees, calculating for each pair of trees the split-distances, i.e., the number of splits in one tree not present in the other....
The nonextensive parameter for nonequilibrium electron gas in an electromagnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu, Haining; Du, Jiulin
2014-01-01
The nonextensive parameter for nonequilibrium electron gas of the plasma in an electromagnetic field is studied. We exactly obtained an expression of the q-parameter based on Boltzmann kinetic theories for plasmas, where Coulombian interactions and Lorentz forces play dominant roles. We show that the q-parameter different from unity is related by an equation to temperature gradient, electric field strength, magnetic induction as well as overall bulk velocity of the gas. The effect of the magnetic field on the q-parameter depends on the overall bulk velocity. Thus the q-parameter for the electron gas in an electromagnetic field represents the nonequilibrium nature or nonisothermal configurations of the plasma with electromagnetic interactions. - Highlights: • An expression of the q-parameter is obtained for nonequilibrium plasma with electromagnetic interactions. • The q-parameter is related to temperature gradient, electric field strength, magnetic induction as well as overall bulk velocity of the plasma. • The q-parameter represents the nonequilibrium nature of the complex plasma with electromagnetic interactions
The nonextensive parameter for nonequilibrium electron gas in an electromagnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yu, Haining; Du, Jiulin, E-mail: jldu@tju.edu.cn
2014-11-15
The nonextensive parameter for nonequilibrium electron gas of the plasma in an electromagnetic field is studied. We exactly obtained an expression of the q-parameter based on Boltzmann kinetic theories for plasmas, where Coulombian interactions and Lorentz forces play dominant roles. We show that the q-parameter different from unity is related by an equation to temperature gradient, electric field strength, magnetic induction as well as overall bulk velocity of the gas. The effect of the magnetic field on the q-parameter depends on the overall bulk velocity. Thus the q-parameter for the electron gas in an electromagnetic field represents the nonequilibrium nature or nonisothermal configurations of the plasma with electromagnetic interactions. - Highlights: • An expression of the q-parameter is obtained for nonequilibrium plasma with electromagnetic interactions. • The q-parameter is related to temperature gradient, electric field strength, magnetic induction as well as overall bulk velocity of the plasma. • The q-parameter represents the nonequilibrium nature of the complex plasma with electromagnetic interactions.
Chakraborty, Saikat; Das, Subir K.
2017-09-01
Via Monte Carlo simulations we study pattern and aging during coarsening in a nonconserved nearest-neighbor Ising model, following quenches from infinite to zero temperature, in space dimension d = 3. The decay of the order-parameter autocorrelation function appears to obey a power-law behavior, as a function of the ratio between the observation and waiting times, in the large ratio limit. However, the exponent of the power law, estimated accurately via a state-of-the-art method, violates a well-known lower bound. This surprising fact has been discussed in connection with a quantitative picture of the structural anomaly that the 3D Ising model exhibits during coarsening at zero temperature. These results are compared with those for quenches to a temperature above that of the roughening transition.
When long-range zero-lag synchronization is feasible in cortical networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Atthaphon eViriyopase
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Many studies have reported long-range synchronization of neuronal activity between brain areas, in particular in the gamma-band with frequencies in the range of 40-80 Hz. Several studies have reported synchrony with zero phase lag, which is remarkable considering the synaptic and conduction delays inherent in the connections between distant brain areas. This result has led to many speculations about the possible functional role of zero-lag synchrony, e.g., for neuronal communication in attention, memory and feature binding. However, recent studies using recordings of single-unit activity and local field potentials report that neuronal synchronization occurs with non-zero phase lags. This raises the questions whether zero-lag synchrony can occur in the brain and, if so, under which conditions.We used analytical methods and computer simulations to investigate which connectivity between neuronal populations allows or prohibits zero-lag synchrony. We did so for a model where two oscillators interact via a relay oscillator. Analytical results and computer simulations were obtained for both type I Mirollo-Strogatz neurons and type II Hodgkin-Huxley neurons. We have investigated the dynamics of the model for various types of synaptic coupling and importantly considered the potential impact of Spike-Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP and its learning window. We confirm previous results that zero-lag synchrony can be achieved in this configuration. This is much easier to achieve with Hodgkin-Huxley neurons, which have a biphasic phase response curve, than for type I neurons. STDP facilitates zero-lag synchrony as it adjusts the synaptic strengths such that zero-lag synchrony is feasible for a much larger range of parameters than without STDP.
Two statistics for evaluating parameter identifiability and error reduction
Doherty, John; Hunt, Randall J.
2009-01-01
Two statistics are presented that can be used to rank input parameters utilized by a model in terms of their relative identifiability based on a given or possible future calibration dataset. Identifiability is defined here as the capability of model calibration to constrain parameters used by a model. Both statistics require that the sensitivity of each model parameter be calculated for each model output for which there are actual or presumed field measurements. Singular value decomposition (SVD) of the weighted sensitivity matrix is then undertaken to quantify the relation between the parameters and observations that, in turn, allows selection of calibration solution and null spaces spanned by unit orthogonal vectors. The first statistic presented, "parameter identifiability", is quantitatively defined as the direction cosine between a parameter and its projection onto the calibration solution space. This varies between zero and one, with zero indicating complete non-identifiability and one indicating complete identifiability. The second statistic, "relative error reduction", indicates the extent to which the calibration process reduces error in estimation of a parameter from its pre-calibration level where its value must be assigned purely on the basis of prior expert knowledge. This is more sophisticated than identifiability, in that it takes greater account of the noise associated with the calibration dataset. Like identifiability, it has a maximum value of one (which can only be achieved if there is no measurement noise). Conceptually it can fall to zero; and even below zero if a calibration problem is poorly posed. An example, based on a coupled groundwater/surface-water model, is included that demonstrates the utility of the statistics. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakata, Kouki
2013-01-01
On the basis of the Schwinger–Keldysh formalism, we have closely investigated the temperature dependence of quantum spin pumping generated using electron spin resonance. We have clarified that three-magnon splittings excite non-zero modes of magnons and characterize the temperature dependence of quantum spin pumping generated using electron spin resonance. (paper)
Convergence of Batch Split-Complex Backpropagation Algorithm for Complex-Valued Neural Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Huisheng Zhang
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The batch split-complex backpropagation (BSCBP algorithm for training complex-valued neural networks is considered. For constant learning rate, it is proved that the error function of BSCBP algorithm is monotone during the training iteration process, and the gradient of the error function tends to zero. By adding a moderate condition, the weights sequence itself is also proved to be convergent. A numerical example is given to support the theoretical analysis.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cooke, D.W.; Jahan, M.S.; Kwok, R.S.; Lichti, R.L.; Adams, T.R.; Boekema, C.; Dawson, W.K.; Kebede, A.; Schwegler, J.; Crow, J.E.; Mihalsin, T.
1990-01-01
Zero-field muon-spin-rotation (μSR) measurements on (Y 1-x Pr x )Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7 [x = 1.0, 0.8, 0.6, and 0.54] show evidence for antiferromagnetic ordering of the Cu moments within the Cu--O planes, with Neel temperatures 285,220, 35, 30, and 20 K respectively. For x = 1.0 the local muon magnetic field is ∼16 mT, but decreases to ∼12 mT at 17 K, due to additional magnetic ordering. The zero-field data, in conjunction with transport data, allow construction of a complete diagram for this system. Transverse-field (1 kOe) μSR data for x = 0.2 (T c = 75 K) show that the muon depolarization is determined primarily by the Cu nuclear moments for T>T c . Fitting the superconducting-state data to a BCS model yields an extrapolated zero-temperature magnetic penetration depth of 2170 angstrom. 9 refs., 3 figs
Higgs, Binos and Gluinos: Split Susy within Reach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alves, Daniele S.M.; Izaguirre, Eder; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC /Stanford U., ITP
2012-09-14
Recent results from the LHC for the Higgs boson with mass between 142 GeV {approx}< m{sub h{sup 0}} {approx}< 147 GeV points to PeV-scale Split Supersymmetry. This article explores the consequences of a Higgs mass in this range and possible discovery modes for Split Susy. Moderate lifetime gluinos, with decay lengths in the 25 {micro}m to 10 yr range, are its imminent smoking gun signature. The 7TeV LHC will be sensitive to the moderately lived gluinos and trilepton signatures from direct electroweakino production. Moreover, the dark matter abundance may be obtained from annihilation through an s-channel Higgs resonance, with the LSP almost purely bino and mass m{sub {chi}{sub 1}{sup 0}} {approx_equal} 70 GeV. The Higgs resonance region of Split Susy has visible signatures in dark matter direct and indirect detection and electric dipole moment experiments. If the anomalies go away, the majority of Split Susy parameter space will be excluded.
Mini-Split Heat Pump Evaluation and Zero Energy Ready Home Support
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Herk, Anastasia [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)
2017-01-01
This project was created from a partnership between the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building America research team IBACOS, Inc. and Imagine Homes, a production homebuilder of high-performance homes in San Antonio, Texas—a hot-humid climate. The primary purpose was to evaluate the performance of a multihead mini-split heat pump (MSHP) space-conditioning system, which consists of ducted and ductless indoor units, in maintaining uniform comfort in an occupied test house. The research team evaluated the MSHP space-conditioning strategy for its effectiveness in achieving uniform temperature and relative humidity (RH) levels throughout the test house and for overall constructability and cost. This evaluation was based on data that were collected from short-term tests and monitoring during 1 year of occupancy, as well as from builder and occupant feedback. Design considerations for integrating an MSHP system into the builder’s full range of production home designs were also explored, with a focus on minimizing the cost and complexity of the system design while meeting the thermal loads of the house and providing occupant comfort according to ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 55-2010 (ASHRAE 2010a).
Division by zero in non-involutive meadows
Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.
2015-01-01
Meadows have been proposed as alternatives for fields with a purely equational axiomatization. At the basis of meadows lies the decision to make the multiplicative inverse operation total by imposing that the multiplicative inverse of zero is zero. Thus, the multiplicative inverse operation of a
Chen, Yan-Cong; Liu, Jun-Liang; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Liu, Dan; Chibotaru, Liviu F; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Tong, Ming-Liang
2017-04-24
An extremely rare non-Kramers holmium(III) single-ion magnet (SIM) is reported to be stabilized in the pentagonal-bipyramidal geometry by a phosphine oxide with a high energy barrier of 237(4) cm -1 . The suppression of the quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM) at zero field and the hyperfine structures originating from field-induced QTMs can be observed even from the field-dependent alternating-current magnetic susceptibility in addition to single-crystal hysteresis loops. These dramatic dynamics were attributed to the combination of the favorable crystal-field environment and the hyperfine interactions arising from 165 Ho (I=7/2) with a natural abundance of 100 %. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Cortical splitting of the mandible after irradiation. Special reference to osteoradionecrosis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Katsura, Kouji; Ito, Jusuke; Hayashi, Takafumi; Taira, Shuhzou; Nakajima, Syunichi
2001-01-01
The purpose of this study was to discuss the relationship between radiation bone injuries and a splitting of the cortical bone in the radiation field. Between January 1993 and September 1998, 53 patients with head and neck cancer received radiotherapy. The study cohort consisted of 23 patients who were followed with computed tomographic scans more than one year after radiotherapy. We evaluated clinical and computed tomographic features. Computed tomographic scanning was performed with a section thickness of 3 or 4 mm. Bone images were obtained with identical window width (4000 Haunsfield units) and window level (1000 Haunsfield units). Splitting of the cortical bone was defined as disappearance of bone density in the cortical bone, showing a linear shape running parallel to the surface of the cortex. Splitting appeared in 9 sites in 8 patients. All patients fulfilled UICC criteria for classifying oral cancer. Most of the patients received external irradiation with a total radiation dose of 50 or 60 Gy. In all cases, splitting was found in the mandibular cortex at the site of muscle attachment, that was included in the radiation field. Appearance of bone changes in chronological order were periosteal reaction, splitting and bone necrosis. We speculate that splitting results from injuries to bone structure cells caused by blood flow disturbance after surgery and radiotherapy. It is suggested that such splitting can be a predictor of osteoradionecrosis. (author)
Reiss, Miriam Christina; Rümpker, Georg
2017-04-01
when deriving hypothetical one or two-layer splitting parameters.
Pierron, Fabrice
2012-01-01
The Virtual Fields Method: Extracting Constitutive Mechanical Parameters from Full-field Deformation Measurements is the first book on the Virtual Fields Method (VFM), a technique to identify materials mechanical properties from full-field measurements. Firmly rooted with extensive theoretical description of the method, the book presents numerous examples of application to a wide range of materials (composites, metals, welds, biomaterials) and situations (static, vibration, high strain rate). The authors give a detailed training section with examples of progressive difficulty to lead the reader to program the VFM and include a set of commented Matlab programs as well as GUI Matlab-based software for more general situations. The Virtual Fields Method: Extracting Constitutive Mechanical Parameters from Full-field Deformation Measurements is an ideal book for researchers, engineers, and students interested in applying the VFM to new situations motivated by their research.
The Efficiency of Split Panel Designs in an Analysis of Variance Model
Wang, Wei-Guo; Liu, Hai-Jun
2016-01-01
We consider split panel design efficiency in analysis of variance models, that is, the determination of the cross-sections series optimal proportion in all samples, to minimize parametric best linear unbiased estimators of linear combination variances. An orthogonal matrix is constructed to obtain manageable expression of variances. On this basis, we derive a theorem for analyzing split panel design efficiency irrespective of interest and budget parameters. Additionally, relative estimator efficiency based on the split panel to an estimator based on a pure panel or a pure cross-section is present. The analysis shows that the gains from split panel can be quite substantial. We further consider the efficiency of split panel design, given a budget, and transform it to a constrained nonlinear integer programming. Specifically, an efficient algorithm is designed to solve the constrained nonlinear integer programming. Moreover, we combine one at time designs and factorial designs to illustrate the algorithm’s efficiency with an empirical example concerning monthly consumer expenditure on food in 1985, in the Netherlands, and the efficient ranges of the algorithm parameters are given to ensure a good solution. PMID:27163447
Pressure dependence of crystal field splitting in Pr pnictides and chalcogenides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schirber, J.E.; Weaver, H.T.; Ginley, D.S.
1978-01-01
We have measured the pressure dependence of the Pr nuclear magnetic resonance shift in PrN, PrP, PrSb, PrAs, PrS and PrSe. The shifts in all the pnictides increase while in the chalcogenides the shifts decrease with pressure. The rare earth frequency shift is inversely proportional to the crystal field splitting in the context of the point charge model (PCM) so a decrease would be expected for all of these materials at a rate of 5/3 the volume compressibility. Our values for the pnictides tend to be considerably larger than the PCM value as well as the wrong sign. The chalcogenide values are much nearer in magnitude and are of the right sign for the PCM. Contrary to the report of Guertin et al. we see no anomaly in the pressure dependence of the susceptibility of PrS. The fact that PrN which is reported to be non-metallic also shows the wrong sign for the PCM presents difficulties for various conduction electron explanations for this unexpected behavior of the pnictides
Tunneling splitting in double-proton transfer: direct diagonalization results for porphycene.
Smedarchina, Zorka; Siebrand, Willem; Fernández-Ramos, Antonio
2014-11-07
Zero-point and excited level splittings due to double-proton tunneling are calculated for porphycene and the results are compared with experiment. The calculation makes use of a multidimensional imaginary-mode Hamiltonian, diagonalized directly by an effective reduction of its dimensionality. Porphycene has a complex potential energy surface with nine stationary configurations that allow a variety of tunneling paths, many of which include classically accessible regions. A symmetry-based approach is used to show that the zero-point level, although located above the cis minimum, corresponds to concerted tunneling along a direct trans - trans path; a corresponding cis - cis path is predicted at higher energy. This supports the conclusion of a previous paper [Z. Smedarchina, W. Siebrand, and A. Fernández-Ramos, J. Chem. Phys. 127, 174513 (2007)] based on the instanton approach to a model Hamiltonian of correlated double-proton transfer. A multidimensional tunneling Hamiltonian is then generated, based on a double-minimum potential along the coordinate of concerted proton motion, which is newly evaluated at the RI-CC2/cc-pVTZ level of theory. To make it suitable for diagonalization, its dimensionality is reduced by treating fast weakly coupled modes in the adiabatic approximation. This results in a coordinate-dependent mass of tunneling, which is included in a unique Hermitian form into the kinetic energy operator. The reduced Hamiltonian contains three symmetric and one antisymmetric mode coupled to the tunneling mode and is diagonalized by a modified Jacobi-Davidson algorithm implemented in the Jadamilu software for sparse matrices. The results are in satisfactory agreement with the observed splitting of the zero-point level and several vibrational fundamentals after a partial reassignment, imposed by recently derived selection rules. They also agree well with instanton calculations based on the same Hamiltonian.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamot, P.J.; Lee, Y.; Sprague, D.T.
1995-01-01
We have measured the velocity of first- and zero-sound in liquid 3 He at 12.6 MHz over the pressure range of 0.6 to 14.5 bar using a path length modulation technique that we have recently developed. From these measurements, the pressure dependent value of the Fermi liquid parameter F 2 s was calculated and found to be larger at low pressure than previously reported. These new values of F 2 s indicate that transverse zero-sound is a propagating mode at all pressures. The new values are important for the interpretation of the frequencies of order parameter collective modes in the superfluid phases. The new acoustic technique permits measurements in regimes of very high attenuation with a sensitivity in phase velocity of about 10 ppm achieved by a feedback arrangement. The sound velocity is thus measured continuously throughout the highly attenuating crossover (ωt ∼ 1) regime, even at the lowest pressures
Torsionally mediated spin-rotation hyperfine splittings at moderate to high J values in methanol
Belov, S. P.; Golubiatnikov, G. Yu.; Lapinov, A. V.; Ilyushin, V. V.; Alekseev, E. A.; Mescheryakov, A. A.; Hougen, J. T.; Xu, Li-Hong
2016-07-01
This paper presents an explanation based on torsionally mediated proton-spin-overall-rotation interaction for the observation of doublet hyperfine splittings in some Lamb-dip sub-millimeter-wave transitions between ground-state torsion-rotation states of E symmetry in methanol. These unexpected doublet splittings, some as large as 70 kHz, were observed for rotational quantum numbers in the range of J = 13 to 34, and K = - 2 to +3. Because they increase nearly linearly with J for a given branch, we confined our search for an explanation to hyperfine operators containing one nuclear-spin angular momentum factor I and one overall-rotation angular momentum factor J (i.e., to spin-rotation operators) and ignored both spin-spin and spin-torsion operators, since they contain no rotational angular momentum operator. Furthermore, since traditional spin-rotation operators did not seem capable of explaining the observed splittings, we constructed totally symmetric "torsionally mediated spin-rotation operators" by multiplying the E-species spin-rotation operator by an E-species torsional-coordinate factor of the form e±niα. The resulting operator is capable of connecting the two components of a degenerate torsion-rotation E state. This has the effect of turning the hyperfine splitting pattern upside down for some nuclear-spin states, which leads to bottom-to-top and top-to-bottom hyperfine selection rules for some transitions, and thus to an explanation for the unexpectedly large observed hyperfine splittings. The constructed operator cannot contribute to hyperfine splittings in the A-species manifold because its matrix elements within the set of torsion-rotation A1 and A2 states are all zero. The theory developed here fits the observed large doublet splittings to a root-mean-square residual of less than 1 kHz and predicts unresolvable splittings for a number of transitions in which no doublet splitting was detected.
Splitting method for the combined formulation of fluid-particle problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Hyung Gwon; Yoo, Jung Yul; Joseph, D. D.
2000-01-01
A splitting method for the direct numerical simulation of solid-liquid mixtures is presented, where a symmetric pressure equation is newly proposed. Through numerical experiment, it is found that the newly proposed splitting method works well with a matrix-free formulation for some bench mark problems avoiding an erroneous pressure field which appears when using the conventional pressure equation of a splitting method. When deriving a typical pressure equation of a splitting method, the motion of a solid particle has to be approximated by the 'intermediate velocity' instead of treating it as unknowns since it is necessary as a boundary condition. Therefore, the motion of a solid particle is treated in such an explicit way that a particle moves by the known form drag(pressure drag) that is calculated from the pressure equation in the previous step. From the numerical experiment, it was shown that this method gives an erroneous pressure field even for the very small time step size as a particle velocity increases. In this paper, coupling the unknowns of particle velocities in the pressure equation is proposed, where the resulting matrix is reduced to the symmetric one by applying the projector of the combined formulation. It has been tested over some bench mark problems and gives reasonable pressure fields
Determination of rock fracture parameters from crack models for failure in compression
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kemeny, J.M.; Cook, N.G.W.
1987-01-01
Micromechanical models for axial splitting and for shear faulting are used to investigate parameters associated with rock fracture under compressive stresses. The fracture energies to create splitting fractures and shear faults are calculated using laboratory triaxial data. These energies are compared with the fracture energies for the propagation of microcracks that coalesce to form the larger scale fractures. It is found that for Westerly granite, the energies to create splitting fractures and shear faults are about three orders of magnitude greater than the energy needed to drive the tensile microcracks, due to the large amount of subsidiary crack surface area created in forming the larger scale fractures. A similar scale effect can be expected when extrapolating the laboratory results to field scale problems
Spin splitting generated in a Y-shaped semiconductor nanostructure with a quantum point contact
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wójcik, P.; Adamowski, J.; Wołoszyn, M.; Spisak, B. J.
2015-01-01
We have studied the spin splitting of the current in the Y-shaped semiconductor nanostructure with a quantum point contact (QPC) in a perpendicular magnetic field. Our calculations show that the appropriate tuning of the QPC potential and the external magnetic field leads to an almost perfect separation of the spin-polarized currents: electrons with opposite spins flow out through different output branches. The spin splitting results from the joint effect of the QPC, the spin Zeeman splitting, and the electron transport through the edge states formed in the nanowire at the sufficiently high magnetic field. The Y-shaped nanostructure can be used to split the unpolarized current into two spin currents with opposite spins as well as to detect the flow of the spin current. We have found that the separation of the spin currents is only slightly affected by the Rashba spin-orbit coupling. The spin-splitter device is an analogue of the optical device—the birefractive crystal that splits the unpolarized light into two beams with perpendicular polarizations. In the magnetic-field range, in which the current is carried through the edges states, the spin splitting is robust against the spin-independent scattering. This feature opens up a possibility of the application of the Y-shaped nanostructure as a non-ballistic spin-splitter device in spintronics
Spin splitting generated in a Y-shaped semiconductor nanostructure with a quantum point contact
Wójcik, P.; Adamowski, J.; Wołoszyn, M.; Spisak, B. J.
2015-07-01
We have studied the spin splitting of the current in the Y-shaped semiconductor nanostructure with a quantum point contact (QPC) in a perpendicular magnetic field. Our calculations show that the appropriate tuning of the QPC potential and the external magnetic field leads to an almost perfect separation of the spin-polarized currents: electrons with opposite spins flow out through different output branches. The spin splitting results from the joint effect of the QPC, the spin Zeeman splitting, and the electron transport through the edge states formed in the nanowire at the sufficiently high magnetic field. The Y-shaped nanostructure can be used to split the unpolarized current into two spin currents with opposite spins as well as to detect the flow of the spin current. We have found that the separation of the spin currents is only slightly affected by the Rashba spin-orbit coupling. The spin-splitter device is an analogue of the optical device—the birefractive crystal that splits the unpolarized light into two beams with perpendicular polarizations. In the magnetic-field range, in which the current is carried through the edges states, the spin splitting is robust against the spin-independent scattering. This feature opens up a possibility of the application of the Y-shaped nanostructure as a non-ballistic spin-splitter device in spintronics.
Rast, S; Borel, A; Helm, L; Belorizky, E; Fries, P H; Merbach, A E
2001-03-21
For the first time, a very general theoretical method is proposed to interpret the full electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra at multiple temperatures and frequencies in the important case of S-state metal ions complexed in liquid solution. This method is illustrated by a careful analysis of the measured spectra of two Gd3+ (S = 7/2) complexes. It is shown that the electronic relaxation mechanisms at the origin of the EPR line shape arise from the combined effects of the modulation of the static crystal field by the random Brownian rotation of the complex and of the transient zero-field splitting. A detailed study of the static crystal field mechanism shows that, contrarily to the usual global models involving only second-order terms, the fourth and sixth order terms can play a non-negligible role. The obtained parameters are well interpreted in the framework of the physics of the various underlying relaxation processes. A better understanding of these mechanisms is highly valuable since they partly control the efficiency of paramagnetic metal ions in contrast agents for medical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Local tuning of the order parameter in superconducting weak links: A zero-inductance nanodevice
Winik, Roni; Holzman, Itamar; Dalla Torre, Emanuele G.; Buks, Eyal; Ivry, Yachin
2018-03-01
Controlling both the amplitude and the phase of the superconducting quantum order parameter (" separators="|ψ ) in nanostructures is important for next-generation information and communication technologies. The lack of electric resistance in superconductors, which may be advantageous for some technologies, hinders convenient voltage-bias tuning and hence limits the tunability of ψ at the microscopic scale. Here, we demonstrate the local tunability of the phase and amplitude of ψ, obtained by patterning with a single lithography step a Nb nano-superconducting quantum interference device (nano-SQUID) that is biased at its nanobridges. We accompany our experimental results by a semi-classical linearized model that is valid for generic nano-SQUIDs with multiple ports and helps simplify the modelling of non-linear couplings among the Josephson junctions. Our design helped us reveal unusual electric characteristics with effective zero inductance, which is promising for nanoscale magnetic sensing and quantum technologies.
Small-bubble transport and splitting dynamics in a symmetric bifurcation
Qamar, Adnan
2017-06-28
Simulations of small bubbles traveling through symmetric bifurcations are conducted to garner information pertinent to gas embolotherapy, a potential cancer treatment. Gas embolotherapy procedures use intra-arterial bubbles to occlude tumor blood supply. As bubbles pass through bifurcations in the blood stream nonhomogeneous splitting and undesirable bioeffects may occur. To aid development of gas embolotherapy techniques, a volume of fluid method is used to model the splitting process of gas bubbles passing through artery and arteriole bifurcations. The model reproduces the variety of splitting behaviors observed experimentally, including the bubble reversal phenomenon. Splitting homogeneity and maximum shear stress along the vessel walls is predicted over a variety of physical parameters. Small bubbles, having initial length less than twice the vessel diameter, were found unlikely to split in the presence of gravitational asymmetry. Maximum shear stresses were found to decrease exponentially with increasing Reynolds number. Vortex-induced shearing near the bifurcation is identified as a possible mechanism for endothelial cell damage.
Small-bubble transport and splitting dynamics in a symmetric bifurcation.
Qamar, Adnan; Warnez, Matthew; Valassis, Doug T; Guetzko, Megan E; Bull, Joseph L
2017-08-01
Simulations of small bubbles traveling through symmetric bifurcations are conducted to garner information pertinent to gas embolotherapy, a potential cancer treatment. Gas embolotherapy procedures use intra-arterial bubbles to occlude tumor blood supply. As bubbles pass through bifurcations in the blood stream nonhomogeneous splitting and undesirable bioeffects may occur. To aid development of gas embolotherapy techniques, a volume of fluid method is used to model the splitting process of gas bubbles passing through artery and arteriole bifurcations. The model reproduces the variety of splitting behaviors observed experimentally, including the bubble reversal phenomenon. Splitting homogeneity and maximum shear stress along the vessel walls is predicted over a variety of physical parameters. Small bubbles, having initial length less than twice the vessel diameter, were found unlikely to split in the presence of gravitational asymmetry. Maximum shear stresses were found to decrease exponentially with increasing Reynolds number. Vortex-induced shearing near the bifurcation is identified as a possible mechanism for endothelial cell damage.
Small-bubble transport and splitting dynamics in a symmetric bifurcation
Qamar, Adnan; Warnez, Matthew; Valassis, Doug T.; Guetzko, Megan E.; Bull, Joseph L.
2017-01-01
Simulations of small bubbles traveling through symmetric bifurcations are conducted to garner information pertinent to gas embolotherapy, a potential cancer treatment. Gas embolotherapy procedures use intra-arterial bubbles to occlude tumor blood supply. As bubbles pass through bifurcations in the blood stream nonhomogeneous splitting and undesirable bioeffects may occur. To aid development of gas embolotherapy techniques, a volume of fluid method is used to model the splitting process of gas bubbles passing through artery and arteriole bifurcations. The model reproduces the variety of splitting behaviors observed experimentally, including the bubble reversal phenomenon. Splitting homogeneity and maximum shear stress along the vessel walls is predicted over a variety of physical parameters. Small bubbles, having initial length less than twice the vessel diameter, were found unlikely to split in the presence of gravitational asymmetry. Maximum shear stresses were found to decrease exponentially with increasing Reynolds number. Vortex-induced shearing near the bifurcation is identified as a possible mechanism for endothelial cell damage.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sibeck, D.G.; McEntire, R.W.; Lui, A.T.Y.; Lopez, R.E.; Krimigis, S.M.
1987-01-01
We present a magnetic field drift shell--splitting model for the unusual butterfly and head-and-shoulder energetic (E>25 keV) particle pitch angle distributions (PADs) which appear deep within the dayside magnetosphere during the course of storms and substorms. Drift shell splitting separates the high and low pitch angle particles in nightside injections as they move to the dayside magnetosphere, so that the higher pitch angle particles move radially away from Earth. Consequently, butterfly PADs with a surplus of low pitch angle particles form on the inner edge of the injection, but head-and-shoulder PADs with a surplus of high pitch angle particles from on the outer edge. A similar process removes high pitch angle particles from the inner dayside magnetosphere during storms, leaving the remaining lower pitch angle particles to form butterfly PADs on the inner edge of the ring current. A detailed case and statistical study of CCE/MEPA observations, as well as a review of previous work, shows most examples of unusual PADs to be consistent with the model. copyright American Geophysical Union 1987
The zero-point field. On the search for the cosmic basic energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McTaggart, L.
2007-02-01
Does an inexhaustable energy source exist from which all life is fed? A form of energy, which penetrates all dead and living expression forms of life? Does a logical, scientific explanation exist for parapsychological phenomena like clairvoyance, telepathy, ghost healing, synchronicity, and a model for the mode of action of homeopathy? Do serious researchers and scientific studies to be token in ernest exist, which not only deal with this questions but also have found answers? During eight years the British scientific journalist Lynne McTaggart has researched. ''Teh zero-point field'' is the result of numerous speeches with renowned physicists, biophysicists, neuroscientists, biologist, and consciousness researchers on the whole world, which have independently discovered phenomena, which are combined like puzzle pieces to a fascinating total picture.
Symmetry realization of texture zeros
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grimus, W.; Joshipura, A.S.; Lavoura, L.; Tanimoto, M.
2004-01-01
We show that it is possible to enforce texture zeros in arbitrary entries of the fermion mass matrices by means of Abelian symmetries; in this way, many popular mass-matrix textures find a symmetry justification. We propose two alternative methods which allow one to place zeros in any number of elements of the mass matrices that one wants. They are applicable simultaneously in the quark and lepton sectors. They are also applicable in grand unified theories. The number of scalar fields required by our methods may be large; still, in many interesting cases this number can be reduced considerably. The larger the desired number of texture zeros is, the simpler are the models which reproduce the texture. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malyshev, V A; Carreno, F; Anton, M A; Calderon, Oscar G; Dominguez-Adame, F
2003-01-01
We carry out a theoretical study of the collective spontaneous emission (superradiance) from an ultrathin film comprised of three-level atoms with V configuration of the operating transitions. As the thickness of the system is small compared to the emission wavelength inside the film, the local-field correction to the averaged Maxwell field is relevant. We show that the interplay between the low-frequency quantum coherence within the subspace of the upper doublet states and the local-field correction may drastically affect the branching ratio of the operating transitions. This effect may be used for controlling the emission process by varying the doublet splitting and the amount of low-frequency coherence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Yan-Cong; Liu, Jun-Liang; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Tong, Ming-Liang [Key Lab. of Bioinorganic and Synthetic Chemistry of Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry, Sun Yat-Sen Univ., Guangzhou (China); Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang [Institut Neel, CNRS and Universite Joseph Fournier, Grenoble (France); Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Physikalisches Institut, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Liu, Dan; Chibotaru, Liviu F. [Theory of Nanomaterials Group and INPAC-Institute of Nanoscale Physics and Chemistry, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium)
2017-04-24
An extremely rare non-Kramers holmium(III) single-ion magnet (SIM) is reported to be stabilized in the pentagonal-bipyramidal geometry by a phosphine oxide with a high energy barrier of 237(4) cm{sup -1}. The suppression of the quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM) at zero field and the hyperfine structures originating from field-induced QTMs can be observed even from the field-dependent alternating-current magnetic susceptibility in addition to single-crystal hysteresis loops. These dramatic dynamics were attributed to the combination of the favorable crystal-field environment and the hyperfine interactions arising from {sup 165}Ho (I=7/2) with a natural abundance of 100 %. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Split of the superconducting transition and magnetism in UPt3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marikhin, V.G.
1992-01-01
A possible reason for splitting the superconducting phase transition in UPt 3 is discussed. The strong coupling of conduction electrons with uranium atom magnetic moments may be such a cause. The given assertion is based on the simple model described by the two-component order parameter φ Ginzburg -Landau functional. The Ginzburg - Landau functional without coupling has the whole symmetry D 6h of hexagonal crystal. Due to the presence of uranium atom magnetic moments M the symmetry is broken locally with the coupling term γ|Mφ| 2 in the Ginzburg - Landau functional. Averaging over the vector M configurations with the involment of the finite correlation radius a is performed. The inequality a 6h . This means that in a real crystal the hexagonal symmetry is not broken at the scales larger ξ. In the framework of the given theory the expressions for the specific heat jumps and equation combining the upper critical field H c2 and the phase transition split ΔT c with the pressure variation are obtained. The difficulties connencted with the small experimental magnitude of uranium atom magnetic moments are discussed
Abbasi, Fereshteh; Engheta, Nader
2014-10-20
The concept of metamaterial-inspired nanocircuits, dubbed metatronics, was introduced in [Science 317, 1698 (2007); Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 095504 (2005)]. It was suggested how optical lumped elements (nanoelements) can be made using subwavelength plasmonic or non-plasmonic particles. As a result, the optical metatronic equivalents of a number of electronic circuits, such as frequency mixers and filters, were suggested. In this work we further expand the concept of electronic lumped element networks into optical metatronic circuits and suggest a conceptual model applicable to various metatronic passive networks. In particular, we differentiate between the series and parallel networks using epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) and mu-near-zero (MNZ) materials. We employ layered structures with subwavelength thicknesses for the nanoelements as the building blocks of collections of metatronic networks. Furthermore, we explore how by choosing the non-zero constitutive parameters of the materials with specific dispersions, either Drude or Lorentzian dispersion with suitable parameters, capacitive and inductive responses can be achieved in both series and parallel networks. Next, we proceed with the one-to-one analogy between electronic circuits and optical metatronic filter layered networks and justify our analogies by comparing the frequency response of the two paradigms. Finally, we examine the material dispersion of near-zero relative permittivity as well as other physically important material considerations such as losses.
Photoelectrochemical solar water splitting: From basic principles to advanced devices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bandar Y.Alfaifi
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Photoelectrochemical water splitting (PEC offers a promising path for sustainable generation of hydrogen fuel. However, improving solar fuel water splitting efficiency facing tremendous challenges, due to the energy loss related to fast recombination of the photogenerated charge carriers, electrode degradation, as well as limited light harvesting. This review focuses on the brief introduction of basic fundamental of PEC water splitting and the concept of various types of water splitting approaches. Numerous engineering strategies for the investgating of the higher efficiency of the PEC, including charge separation, light harvesting, and co-catalysts doping, have been discussed. Moreover, recent remarkable progress and developments for PEC water splitting with some promising materials are discussed. Recent advanced applications of PEC are also reviewed. Finally, the review concludes with a summary and future outlook of this hot field.
Collective mass and zero-point energy in the generator-coordinate method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fiolhais, C.
1982-01-01
The aim of the present thesis if the study of the collective mass parameters and the zero-point energies in the GCM framework with special regards to the fission process. After the derivation of the collective Schroedinger equation in the framework of the Gaussian overlap approximation the inertia parameters are compared with those of the adiabatic time-dependent Hartree-Fock method. Then the kinetic and the potential zero-point energy occurring in this formulation are studied. Thereafter the practical application of the described formalism is discussed. Then a numerical calculation of the GCM mass parameter and the zero-point energy for the fission process on the base of a two-center shell model with a pairing force in the BCS approximation is presented. (HSI) [de
Actual and Idealized Crystal Field Parameterizations for the Uranium Ions in UF 4
Gajek, Z.; Mulak, J.; Krupa, J. C.
1993-12-01
The crystal field parameters for the actual coordination symmetries of the uranium ions in UF 4, C2 and C1, and for their idealizations to D2, C2 v , D4, D4 d , and the Archimedean antiprism point symmetries are given. They have been calculated by means of both the perturbative ab initio model and the angular overlap model and are referenced to the recent results fitted by Carnall's group. The equivalency of some different sets of parameters has been verified with the standardization procedure. The adequacy of several idealized approaches has been tested by comparison of the corresponding splitting patterns of the 3H 4 ground state. Our results support the parameterization given by Carnall. Furthermore, the parameterization of the crystal field potential and the splitting diagram for the symmetryless uranium ion U( C1) are given. Having at our disposal the crystal field splittings for the two kinds of uranium ions in UF 4, U( C2) and U( C1), we calculate the model plots of the paramagnetic susceptibility χ( T) and the magnetic entropy associated with the Schottky anomaly Δ S( T) for UF 4.
Study of ln s Physics in $\\bar{p}p$ Interactions at the Split Field Magnet
2002-01-01
This experiment uses the Split Field Magnet detector to investigate the low p^t, ``ln~s'', type of interactions that dominate the @*p cross-section. Systematic comparisons will be made to pp interactions. \\\\ \\\\ Specific areas to be studied include elastic scattering in the regions 0.05 $<$ !t! $<$ 0.8 GeV|2 and 0.8 $<$ !t! $<$ 4.0 GeV|2, and the use of a minimum bias trigger to study topological cross-sections, inclusive spectra, and two-body correlations. Some specialized triggers, run simultaneously with the high t elastic scattering trigger, are being studied. Examples are a trigger requiring Cerenkov identification in a limited region of phase space, and a trigger to select diffractively produced events.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Han, Gi Yeong; Kim, Song Hyun; Kim, Do Hyun; Shin, Chang Ho; Kim, Jong Kyung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2014-05-15
In this study, how the geometry splitting strategy affects the calculation efficiency was analyzed. In this study, a geometry splitting method was proposed to increase the calculation efficiency in Monte Carlo simulation. First, the analysis of the neutron distribution characteristics in a deep penetration problem was performed. Then, considering the neutron population distribution, a geometry splitting method was devised. Using the proposed method, the FOMs with benchmark problems were estimated and compared with the conventional geometry splitting strategy. The results show that the proposed method can considerably increase the calculation efficiency in using geometry splitting method. It is expected that the proposed method will contribute to optimizing the computational cost as well as reducing the human errors in Monte Carlo simulation. Geometry splitting in Monte Carlo (MC) calculation is one of the most popular variance reduction techniques due to its simplicity, reliability and efficiency. For the use of the geometry splitting, the user should determine locations of geometry splitting and assign the relative importance of each region. Generally, the splitting parameters are decided by the user's experience. However, in this process, the splitting parameters can ineffectively or erroneously be selected. In order to prevent it, there is a recommendation to help the user eliminate guesswork, which is to split the geometry evenly. And then, the importance is estimated by a few iterations for preserving population of particle penetrating each region. However, evenly geometry splitting method can make the calculation inefficient due to the change in mean free path (MFP) of particles.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han, Gi Yeong; Kim, Song Hyun; Kim, Do Hyun; Shin, Chang Ho; Kim, Jong Kyung
2014-01-01
In this study, how the geometry splitting strategy affects the calculation efficiency was analyzed. In this study, a geometry splitting method was proposed to increase the calculation efficiency in Monte Carlo simulation. First, the analysis of the neutron distribution characteristics in a deep penetration problem was performed. Then, considering the neutron population distribution, a geometry splitting method was devised. Using the proposed method, the FOMs with benchmark problems were estimated and compared with the conventional geometry splitting strategy. The results show that the proposed method can considerably increase the calculation efficiency in using geometry splitting method. It is expected that the proposed method will contribute to optimizing the computational cost as well as reducing the human errors in Monte Carlo simulation. Geometry splitting in Monte Carlo (MC) calculation is one of the most popular variance reduction techniques due to its simplicity, reliability and efficiency. For the use of the geometry splitting, the user should determine locations of geometry splitting and assign the relative importance of each region. Generally, the splitting parameters are decided by the user's experience. However, in this process, the splitting parameters can ineffectively or erroneously be selected. In order to prevent it, there is a recommendation to help the user eliminate guesswork, which is to split the geometry evenly. And then, the importance is estimated by a few iterations for preserving population of particle penetrating each region. However, evenly geometry splitting method can make the calculation inefficient due to the change in mean free path (MFP) of particles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. S. Belenkaya
2016-07-01
Full Text Available The paraboloid model of Saturn's magnetosphere describes the magnetic field as being due to the sum of contributions from the internal field of the planet, the ring current, and the tail current, all contained by surface currents inside a magnetopause boundary which is taken to be a paraboloid of revolution about the planet-Sun line. The parameters of the model have previously been determined by comparison with data from a few passes through Saturn's magnetosphere in compressed and expanded states, depending on the prevailing dynamic pressure of the solar wind. Here we significantly expand such comparisons through examination of Cassini magnetic field data from 18 near-equatorial passes that span wide ranges of local time, focusing on modelling the co-latitudinal field component that defines the magnetic flux passing through the equatorial plane. For 12 of these passes, spanning pre-dawn, via noon, to post-midnight, the spacecraft crossed the magnetopause during the pass, thus allowing an estimate of the concurrent subsolar radial distance of the magnetopause R1 to be made, considered to be the primary parameter defining the scale size of the system. The best-fit model parameters from these passes are then employed to determine how the parameters vary with R1, using least-squares linear fits, thus providing predictive model parameters for any value of R1 within the range. We show that the fits obtained using the linear approximation parameters are of the same order as those for the individually selected parameters. We also show that the magnetic flux mapping to the tail lobes in these models is generally in good accord with observations of the location of the open-closed field line boundary in Saturn's ionosphere, and the related position of the auroral oval. We then investigate the field data on six passes through the nightside magnetosphere, for which the spacecraft did not cross the magnetopause, such that in this case we compare the
High-field magnetization of rare-earth ions in scandium
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Roeland, L. W.; Touborg, P.
1978-01-01
The magnetic moments of Tb, Dy, or Er ions in dilute Sc single-crystal alloys have been measured in fields up to 280 × 105 A/m (350 kOe). The Zeeman energies in this high field are comparable to the total crystal-field splittings. This gives rise to characteristic features in the magnetization cu...... curves. The crystal-field parameters obtained previously from experiments in low fields and the Zeeman interaction give a satisfactory quantitative acount of the experimental results....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Jiyun [Jiangsu Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Department of Physics, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu 215500 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Tu, Ruikang [Jiangsu Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Department of Physics, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu 215500 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou 215000 (China); Fang, Xiaoting [Jiangsu Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Department of Physics, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu 215500 (China); Gu, Quanchao [Jiangsu Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Department of Physics, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu 215500 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou 215000 (China); Zhou, Yanying [Jiangsu Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Department of Physics, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu 215500 (China); Cui, Rongjing [Department of Chemistry, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu 215500 (China); Han, Zhida, E-mail: han@cslg.edu.cn [Jiangsu Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Department of Physics, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu 215500 (China); Zhang, Lei; Fang, Yong [Jiangsu Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Department of Physics, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu 215500 (China); Qian, Bin, E-mail: njqb@cslg.edu.cn [Jiangsu Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Department of Physics, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu 215500 (China); Zhang, Chengliang [School of Science, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Jiang, Xuefan [Jiangsu Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Department of Physics, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu 215500 (China)
2017-03-15
Recently, a new type of exchange bias (EB) after zero-field cooling has attracted considerable interest mainly in bulk magnetic competing systems. Here, we use a detailed magnetotransport investigation to probe the ground state and zero-field cooled EB (ZEB) in Mn{sub 50}Ni{sub 41}Sn{sub 9} ribbon. Both ZEB and field cooled EB were detected in magnetoresistance results consistent with magnetic measurement. A pure spin-glass ground state is proposed based on parabolic shape of low-field magnetoresistance combined with AC magnetization, memory effect. The appearance of ZEB is attributed to the field-induced nucleation and growth of ferromagnetic domains in the spin glass matrix forming unidirectional anisotropy at the interface. - Highlights: • Magnetoresistance was first used to probe the ground state and ZEB in Ni-Mn-based alloys. • A pure spin-glass ground state is proposed in Mn{sub 50}Ni{sub 41}Sn{sub 9} ribbon. • Field-induced nucleation and growth of ferromagnetic domains in SG results in ZEB.
Improved Motion Estimation Using Early Zero-Block Detection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. Lin
2008-07-01
Full Text Available We incorporate the early zero-block detection technique into the UMHexagonS algorithm, which has already been adopted in H.264/AVC JM reference software, to speed up the motion estimation process. A nearly sufficient condition is derived for early zero-block detection. Although the conventional early zero-block detection method can achieve significant improvement in computation reduction, the PSNR loss, to whatever extent, is not negligible especially for high quantization parameter (QP or low bit-rate coding. This paper modifies the UMHexagonS algorithm with the early zero-block detection technique to improve its coding performance. The experimental results reveal that the improved UMHexagonS algorithm greatly reduces computation while maintaining very high coding efficiency.
New series half-bridge converters with the balance input split capacitor voltages
Lin, Bor-Ren; Chiang, Huann-Keng; Wang, Shang-Lun
2016-03-01
This article presents a new dc/dc converter to perform the main functions of zero voltage switching (ZWS), low converter size, high switching frequency and low-voltage stress. Metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) with high switching frequency are used to reduce the converter size and increase circuit efficiency. To overcome low-voltage stress and high turn-on resistance of MOSFETs, the series half-bridge topology is adopted in the proposed converter. Hence, the low-voltage stress MOSFETs can be used for medium-input voltage applications. The asymmetric pulse-width modulation is used to generate the gating signals and achieve the ZWS. On the secondary side, the parallel connection of two diode rectifiers is adopted to reduce the current rating of passive components. On the primary side, the series connection of two transformers is used to balance two output inductor currents. Two flying capacitors are used to automatically balance the input split capacitor voltages. Finally, experiments with 1000 W rated power are performed to verify the theoretical analysis and the effectiveness of proposed converter.
Thick branes with inner structure in mimetic gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhong, Yi; Zhang, Yu-Peng; Liu, Yu-Xiao [Lanzhou University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Lanzhou (China); Lanzhou University, Research Center of Gravitation, Lanzhou (China); Zhong, Yuan [Xi' an Jiaotong University, School of Science, Xi' an (China)
2018-01-15
In this paper, thick branes generated by mimetic scalar field are investigated. Three typical thick brane models are constructed and the linear tensor and scalar perturbations are analyzed. These branes have different inner structures, some of which are absent in general relativity. For each brane model, the solution is stable under both tensor and scalar perturbations. The tensor zero modes are localized on the branes, while the scalar perturbations do not propagate and they are not localized on the brane. As the branes split into multi sub-branes for specific parameters, the potentials of the tensor perturbations also split into multi-wells, and this may lead to new phenomenon in the resonance of the tensor perturbation and the localization of matter fields. (orig.)
[Zero citation of Russian institute publications on the psychiatry and addiction].
Nemtsov, A V; Kuznetsova-Moreva, E A
To evaluate the zero-citation sizes. Based on the data of the Russian Science Citation Index the publication activity of four leading institutes in the field of Psychiatry and Addiction is analyzed. The same indices in the field of Neurology were used as a control. Number and percentage of publications with ≥1 citations and zero-citation were analyzed. It has been shown that in psychiatric science zero citation rate is quite high (from 32.8% to 47.2%, an average of 42.9%). It is higher compared to the control. Zero-citation indicator is essential to evaluate the effectiveness of scientific institutions.
The background-quantum split symmetry in two-dimensional σ-models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blasi, A.; Delduc, F.; Sorella, S.P.
1989-01-01
A generic, non-linear, background-quantum split is translated into a BRS symmetry. The renormalization of the resulting Slavnov-Taylor identity is analyzed in the class of two-dimensional σ-models with Wess-Zumino term which suggests the adoption of a regularization independent method. We discuss the cohomology of the linearized nilpotent operator derived from the Slavnov-Taylor identity. In particular, the cohomology class with zero Faddeev-Popov charge ensures the stability of the action, while the fact that the cohomology class with one unit of Faddeev-Popov charge is empty ensures the absence of anomalies. (orig.)
Gravitational Zero Point Energy induces Physical Observables
Garattini, Remo
2010-01-01
We consider the contribution of Zero Point Energy on the induced Cosmological Constant and on the induced Electric/Magnetic charge in absence of matter fields. The method is applicable to every spherically symmetric background. Extensions to a generic $f(R) $ theory are also allowed. Only the graviton appears to be fundamental to the determination of Zero Point Energy.
ZEROES OF GENERALIZED FRESNEL COMPLEMENTARY INTEGRAL FUNCTIONS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jaime Lobo Segura
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Theoretical upper and lower bounds are established for zeroes of a parametric family of functions which are deﬁned by integrals of the same type as the Fresnel complementary integral. Asymptotic properties for these bounds are obtained as well as monotony properties of the localization intervals. Given the value of the parameter an analytical-numerical procedure is deduced to enclose all zeros of a given function with an a priori error.
Field Evaluation of Advances in Energy-Efficiency Practices for Manufactured Homes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Levy, E. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions (ARIES) Collaboration, New York, NY (United States); Dentz, J. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions (ARIES) Collaboration, New York, NY (United States); Ansanelli, E. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions (ARIES) Collaboration, New York, NY (United States); Barker, G. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions (ARIES) Collaboration, New York, NY (United States); Rath, P. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions (ARIES) Collaboration, New York, NY (United States); Dadia, D. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions (ARIES) Collaboration, New York, NY (United States)
2016-03-01
Three side-by-side lab houses were built, instrumented and monitored in an effort to determine through field testing and analysis the relative contributions of select technologies toward reducing energy use in new manufactured homes. The lab houses in Russellville, Alabama compared the performance of three homes built to varying levels of thermal integrity and HVAC equipment: a baseline HUD-code home equipped with an electric furnace and a split system air conditioner; an ENERGY STAR manufactured home with an enhanced thermal envelope and traditional split system heat pump; and a house designed to qualify for Zero Energy Ready Home designation with a ductless mini-split heat pump with transfer fan distribution system in place of the traditional duct system for distribution. Experiments were conducted in the lab houses to evaluate impact on energy and comfort of interior door position, window blind position and transfer fan operation. The report describes results of tracer gas and co-heating tests and presents calculation of the heat pump coefficient of performance for both the traditional heat pump and the ductless mini-split. A series of calibrated energy models was developed based on measured data and run in three locations in the Southeast to compare annual energy usage of the three homes.
Resonance tuning due to Coulomb interaction in strong near-field coupled metamaterials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roy Chowdhury, Dibakar; Xu, Ningning; Zhang, Weili; Singh, Ranjan
2015-01-01
Coulomb's law is one of the most fundamental laws of physics that describes the electrostatic interaction between two like or unlike point charges. Here, we experimentally observe a strong effect of Coulomb interaction in tightly coupled terahertz metamaterials where the split-ring resonator dimers in a unit cell are coupled through their near fields across the capacitive split gaps. Using a simple analytical model, we evaluated the Coulomb parameter that switched its sign from negative to positive values indicating the transition in the nature of Coulomb force from being repulsive to attractive depending upon the near field coupling between the split ring resonators. Apart from showing interesting effects in the strong coupling regime between meta-atoms, Coulomb interaction also allows an additional degree of freedom to achieve frequency tunable dynamic metamaterials
ZERO-FIELD NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE FOR STUDY OF ANTIFERROMAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF FeF3 MATERIALS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. R. F. Suwandi
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR has been used as a research tool in many fields. In this study, the magnetic properties, especially anti-ferromagnetic properties of FeF3 materials were investigated. Zero-field custom-built NMR method was used to investigate the anti-ferromagnetic properties in the materials. Experiments have been carried out by varying the sample temperatures from 8 K to 220 K. Ordinary spin echo pulse sequence 90⁰RF–τ–180⁰RF were used. Using Fast Fourier Transform, the signals in NMR spectrum were analyzed and the peak showed the resonance frequency. The result showed that resonance frequencies decrease with increasing in temperature. The frequency of the spectrum was around 85.41 MHz in the zero-temperature limit, and this corresponds with Fe hyperfine field at zero-temperature limit was 2.14 T. The temperature dependence of the local magnetization does not fit T2 Bloch’s Law very well. Instead, it fits the exponential form having an energy gap in the dispersion relation of the spin wave. It is obtained from the result that FeF3 is antiferromagnetic materials with energy gap of 11.466 meV and anisotropy energy of 1.045 meV.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR telah banyak digunakan sebagai “research tool” pada berbagai bidang kajian di fisika. Pada studi ini, akan dilakukan eksperimen untuk menguji sifat magnetik, khususnya antiferromagnetik pada material FeF3. Telah dilakukan eksperimen dengan memvariasikan temperatur pada sampel dari 8 K hingga 220 K. Pulse sequence yang digunakan adalah 90⁰RF–τ–180⁰RF. Dengan memanfaatkan Fast Fourier Transform, sinyal echo ini dapat dianalisis dalam bentuk spektrum NMR dengan puncak spektrum menunjukkan frekuensi resonansinya. Diperoleh bahwa frekuensi resonansi akan menurun seiring dengan kenaikan temperatur. Posisi frekuensi pada temperatur 0 K adalah sebesar 85,41 MHz, hal ini memperlihatkan bahwa medan hyperfine dari Fe sebesar 2,14 T pada temperatur 0 K. Kurva
Integral parameters of crystal field for RE spectra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kustov, E.F.; Maketov, T.K.; Prgevudsky, A.K.; Steczko, G.
1980-01-01
The integral parameters of the crystal field are introduced for the interpretation of the spectra of RE ions in various crystals. The main formula of the method, the expression of the parameters for various states of Ce, Pr, Nd, Eu, Tb, Er, Tu, and Yb are determined. Integral parameters of A 2 , A 4 , A 6 and parameter of the spin-orbit interaction xi are calculated for 40 laser crystals with Nd, Er. An interpretation of the symmetry of the Eu 3+ centres of the NaBaZn silicate glass is given using integral parameters A 2 , A 4 . (author)
Ground State of Quasi-One Dimensional Competing Spin Chain Cs2Cu2Mo3O12 at zero and Finite Fields
Matsui, Kazuki; Goto, Takayuki; Angel, Julia; Watanabe, Isao; Sasaki, Takahiko; Hase, Masashi
The ground state of competing-spin-chain Cs2Cu2Mo3O12 with the ferromagnetic exchange interaction J1 = -93 K on nearest-neighboring spins and the antiferromagnetic one J2 = +33 K on next-nearest-neighboring spins was investigated by ZF/LF-μSR and 133Cs-NMR in the 3He temperature range. The zero-field μSR relaxation rate λ shows a significant increase below 1.85 K, suggesting the existence of magnetic order, which is consistent with the recent report on the specific heat. However, LF decoupling data at the lowest temperature 0.3 K indicate that the spins fluctuate dynamically, suggesting that the system is in a quasi-static ordered state under zero field. This idea is further supported by the fact that the broadening in NMR spectra below TN is weakened at low field below 2 T.
Gravitational waves from phase transition in split NMSSM
Demidov, S. V.; Gorbunov, D. S.; Kirpichnikov, D. V.
2018-04-01
We discuss gravitational wave signal from the strongly first order electroweak phase transition in the split NMSSM. We find that for sets of parameters predicting successful electroweak baryogenesis the gravitational wave signal can be within the reach of future experiments LISA, BBO and Ultimate DECIGO.
Evaluation of Certain Pharmaceutical Quality Attributes of Lisinopril Split Tablets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khairi M. S. Fahelelbom
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Tablet splitting is an accepted practice for the administration of drugs for a variety of reasons, including dose adjustment, ease of swallowing and cost savings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical properties of lisinopril tablets as a result of splitting the tablets either by hand or with a splitting device. The impact of the splitting technique of lisinopril (Zestril® tablets, 20 mg on certain physical parameters such as weight variation, friability, disintegration, dissolution and drug content were studied. Splitting the tablets either by hand or with a splitter resulted in a minute but statistically significant average weight loss of <0.25% of the tablet to the surrounding environment. The variability in the weight of the hand-split tablet halves was more pronounced (37 out of 40 tablet halves varied by more than 10% from the mean weight than when using the tablet splitter (3 out of 40 tablet halves. The dissolution and drug content of the hand-split tablets were therefore affected because of weight differences. However, the pharmacopoeia requirements for friability and disintegration time were met. Hand splitting of tablets can result in an inaccurate dose and may present clinical safety issues, especially for drugs with a narrow therapeutic window in which large fluctuations in drug concentrations are undesirable. It is recommended to use tablets with the exact desired dose, but if this is not an option, then a tablet splitter could be used.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang, Tongsong; Jiang, Ziwu; Zhang, Zhaozhong
2015-01-01
In the study of the relation between complexified classical and non-Hermitian quantum mechanics, physicists found that there are links to quaternionic and split quaternionic mechanics, and this leads to the possibility of employing algebraic techniques of split quaternions to tackle some problems in complexified classical and quantum mechanics. This paper, by means of real representation of a split quaternion matrix, studies the problem of diagonalization of a split quaternion matrix and gives algebraic techniques for diagonalization of split quaternion matrices in split quaternionic mechanics
Improved zero dimensional model of a reversed field pinch fusion device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haynes, K.E.
1987-01-01
A zero-dimensional model has been developed which accurately predicts conditions observed during several runs of the ZT-40M reversed field pinch fusion device at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The model is based on a physical model developed by E.H. Klevans at Penn State University. Improvements made to this model included the use of coronal non-equilibrium equations for predicting impurity effects, the inclusion of an exponentially decaying ion heating term, and the relaxation of the assumption that ion and electron densities are equal in the device. The model has been used to simulate ZT-40M in both flat-top and slowly ramped current modes. Using experimentally measured density and current evolutions, the model accurately predicts observed tau/sub E/, β/sub Θ/, T/sub e/, T/sub i/, Z/sub eff/, and radiated power. The continuing goal of this work is to predict conditions in the ZT-H device, which is under construction. 28 refs., 18 figs
The Electromagnetic Zero-Point Field and the Flat Polarizable Vacuum Representation
Desiato, J T
2003-01-01
There are several interpretations of the Polarizable Vacuum (PV). One is the variable speed of light (VSL) approach, that has been shown to be isomorphic to General Relativity (GR) within experimental limits. However, another interpretation is representative of flat geometry, in which intervals of time and distance are measured in local inertial reference frames where the speed of light remains constant. The Flat PV approach leads to variable impedance transformations, governed by the spectral energy content of the Quantum Vacuum’s Electromagnetic (EM) Zero-Point Field (ZPF). The EM ZPF consists of photons. An unlimited number of photons may occupy the same quantum state at an arbitrary set of coordinates. Therefore, the spectral energy of the ZPF may be varied smoothly, represented by a superposition of EM waves with a large number of photons per cubic wavelength. Utilizing the Flat PV representation, a family of frequency dependent solutions of Poisson’s equation are derived, that may be applied as tool...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perez, C.; Rosa, M. I. de la; Gruetzmacher, K.; Fuentes, L. M.; Gonzalo, A. B.
2008-01-01
In this work we present Doppler-free two-photon optogalvanic spectroscopy as a tool to measure the electric field strength in the cathode fall region of a hollow cathode discharge via the Stark splitting of the 2S level of atomic deuterium. The strong electric field strength present in the hollow cathode is determined for various discharge conditions which allows studying the corresponding variations of the cathode fall, and its changes with discharge operation time.
Torsionally mediated spin-rotation hyperfine splittings at moderate to high J values in methanol
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belov, S. P.; Golubiatnikov, G. Yu.; Lapinov, A. V. [Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ulyanov Street, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Ilyushin, V. V.; Mescheryakov, A. A. [Institute of Radio Astronomy of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Chervonopraporna 4, 61002 Kharkov (Ukraine); Alekseev, E. A. [Institute of Radio Astronomy of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Chervonopraporna 4, 61002 Kharkov (Ukraine); Quantum Radiophysics Department of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Svobody Square 4, 61022 Kharkov (Ukraine); Hougen, J. T., E-mail: jon.hougen@nist.gov [Sensor Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8441 (United States); Xu, Li-Hong [Department of Physics and Centre for Laser, Atomic, and Molecular Sciences, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, New Brunswick E2L 4L5 (Canada)
2016-07-14
This paper presents an explanation based on torsionally mediated proton-spin–overall-rotation interaction for the observation of doublet hyperfine splittings in some Lamb-dip sub-millimeter-wave transitions between ground-state torsion-rotation states of E symmetry in methanol. These unexpected doublet splittings, some as large as 70 kHz, were observed for rotational quantum numbers in the range of J = 13 to 34, and K = − 2 to +3. Because they increase nearly linearly with J for a given branch, we confined our search for an explanation to hyperfine operators containing one nuclear-spin angular momentum factor I and one overall-rotation angular momentum factor J (i.e., to spin-rotation operators) and ignored both spin-spin and spin-torsion operators, since they contain no rotational angular momentum operator. Furthermore, since traditional spin-rotation operators did not seem capable of explaining the observed splittings, we constructed totally symmetric “torsionally mediated spin-rotation operators” by multiplying the E-species spin-rotation operator by an E-species torsional-coordinate factor of the form e{sup ±niα}. The resulting operator is capable of connecting the two components of a degenerate torsion-rotation E state. This has the effect of turning the hyperfine splitting pattern upside down for some nuclear-spin states, which leads to bottom-to-top and top-to-bottom hyperfine selection rules for some transitions, and thus to an explanation for the unexpectedly large observed hyperfine splittings. The constructed operator cannot contribute to hyperfine splittings in the A-species manifold because its matrix elements within the set of torsion-rotation A{sub 1} and A{sub 2} states are all zero. The theory developed here fits the observed large doublet splittings to a root-mean-square residual of less than 1 kHz and predicts unresolvable splittings for a number of transitions in which no doublet splitting was detected.
Split brain : Divided perception but undivided consciousness
Pinto, Y.; Neville, D.A.; Otten, M.; Corballis, P.M.; Lamme, V.A.F.; de Haan, E.H.F.; Foschi, N.; Fabri, M.
In extensive studies with two split-brain patients we replicate the standard finding that stimuli cannot be compared across visual half-fields, indicating that each hemisphere processes information independently of the other. Yet, crucially, we show that the canonical textbook findings that a
Yeom, T H
1998-01-01
The temperature dependences of the asymmetry parameter eta of the sup 5 sup 1 V nucleus and the second order zero-splitting (ZFS) parameters D and E of the Mn sup 2 sup + impurity ion in BiVO sub 4 single crystals are fitted with a function alpha(T sub c - T) supbeta. The (T sub c - T) sup 1 sup / sup 2 behavior resembles Landau's theory of the second-order phase transition in ferroelectric crystals. The temperature dependence of the electric field gradient at the V site is also found to be closely related to the lattice parameters of the crystal.
Enhanced microactuation with magnetic field curing of ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
ples have been enhanced by two times when compared with that of zero field cured samples. The effect of .... Gauge of wire ... electrolitic-300 mesh (84.67 µm) LR, Product No. ... be in the body centered cubic phase with a lattice parameter.
Zero-point quantum fluctuations and dark energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maggiore, Michele
2011-01-01
In the Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity, the energy associated to an asymptotically flat space-time with metric g μν is related to the Hamiltonian H GR by E=H GR [g μν ]-H GR [η μν ], where the subtraction of the flat-space contribution is necessary to get rid of an otherwise divergent boundary term. This classic result indicates that the energy associated to flat space does not gravitate. We apply the same principle to study the effect of the zero-point fluctuations of quantum fields in cosmology, proposing that their contribution to cosmic expansion is obtained computing the vacuum energy of quantum fields in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker space-time with Hubble parameter H(t) and subtracting from it the flat-space contribution. Then the term proportional to Λ c 4 (where Λ c is the UV cutoff) cancels, and the remaining (bare) value of the vacuum energy density is proportional to Λ c 2 H 2 (t). After renormalization, this produces a renormalized vacuum energy density ∼M 2 H 2 (t), where M is the scale where quantum gravity sets is, so for M of the order of the Planck mass a vacuum energy density of the order of the critical density can be obtained without any fine-tuning. The counterterms can be chosen so that the renormalized energy density and pressure satisfy p=wρ, with w a parameter that can be fixed by comparison to the observed value, so, in particular, one can choose w=-1. An energy density evolving in time as H 2 (t) is however observationally excluded as an explanation for the dominant dark energy component that is responsible for the observed acceleration of the Universe. We rather propose that zero-point vacuum fluctuations provide a new subdominant ''dark'' contribution to the cosmic expansion that, for a UV scale M slightly smaller than the Planck mass, is consistent with existing limits and potentially detectable.
Sunwong, P; Higgins, J S; Hampshire, D P
2014-06-01
We present the designs of probes for making critical current density (Jc) measurements on anisotropic high-temperature superconducting tapes as a function of field, field orientation, temperature and strain in our 40 mm bore, split-pair 15 T horizontal magnet. Emphasis is placed on the design of three components: the vapour-cooled current leads, the variable temperature enclosure, and the springboard-shaped bending beam sample holder. The vapour-cooled brass critical-current leads used superconducting tapes and in operation ran hot with a duty cycle (D) of ~0.2. This work provides formulae for optimising cryogenic consumption and calculating cryogenic boil-off, associated with current leads used to make J(c) measurements, made by uniformly ramping the current up to a maximum current (I(max)) and then reducing the current very quickly to zero. They include consideration of the effects of duty cycle, static helium boil-off from the magnet and Dewar (b'), and the maximum safe temperature for the critical-current leads (T(max)). Our optimized critical-current leads have a boil-off that is about 30% less than leads optimized for magnet operation at the same maximum current. Numerical calculations show that the optimum cross-sectional area (A) for each current lead can be parameterized by LI(max)/A = [1.46D(-0.18)L(0.4)(T(max) - 300)(0.25D(-0.09)) + 750(b'/I(max))D(10(-3)I(max)-2.87b') × 10⁶ A m⁻¹ where L is the current lead's length and the current lead is operated in liquid helium. An optimum A of 132 mm(2) is obtained when I(max) = 1000 A, T(max) = 400 K, D = 0.2, b' = 0.3 l h(-1) and L = 1.0 m. The optimized helium consumption was found to be 0.7 l h(-1). When the static boil-off is small, optimized leads have a boil-off that can be roughly parameterized by: b/I(max) ≈ (1.35 × 10(-3))D(0.41) l h(‑1) A(-1). A split-current-lead design is employed to minimize the rotation of the probes during the high current measurements in our high-field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sunwong, P.; Higgins, J. S.; Hampshire, D. P.
2014-01-01
We present the designs of probes for making critical current density (J c ) measurements on anisotropic high-temperature superconducting tapes as a function of field, field orientation, temperature and strain in our 40 mm bore, split-pair 15 T horizontal magnet. Emphasis is placed on the design of three components: the vapour-cooled current leads, the variable temperature enclosure, and the springboard-shaped bending beam sample holder. The vapour-cooled brass critical-current leads used superconducting tapes and in operation ran hot with a duty cycle (D) of ∼0.2. This work provides formulae for optimising cryogenic consumption and calculating cryogenic boil-off, associated with current leads used to make J c measurements, made by uniformly ramping the current up to a maximum current (I max ) and then reducing the current very quickly to zero. They include consideration of the effects of duty cycle, static helium boil-off from the magnet and Dewar (b ′ ), and the maximum safe temperature for the critical-current leads (T max ). Our optimized critical-current leads have a boil-off that is about 30% less than leads optimized for magnet operation at the same maximum current. Numerical calculations show that the optimum cross-sectional area (A) for each current lead can be parameterized by LI max /A=[1.46D −0.18 L 0.4 (T max −300) 0.25D −0.09 +750(b ′ /I max )D 10 −3 I max −2.87b ′ ]× 10 6 A m −1 where L is the current lead's length and the current lead is operated in liquid helium. An optimum A of 132 mm 2 is obtained when I max = 1000 A, T max = 400 K, D = 0.2, b ′ = 0.3 l h −1 and L = 1.0 m. The optimized helium consumption was found to be 0.7 l h −1 . When the static boil-off is small, optimized leads have a boil-off that can be roughly parameterized by: b/I max ≈ (1.35 × 10 −3 )D 0.41 l h ‑1 A −1 . A split-current-lead design is employed to minimize the rotation of the probes during the high current measurements in
More about unphysical zeroes in quark mass matrices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Emmanuel-Costa, David, E-mail: david.costa@tecnico.ulisboa.pt [Departamento de Física and Centro de Física Teórica de Partículas - CFTP, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); González Felipe, Ricardo, E-mail: ricardo.felipe@tecnico.ulisboa.pt [Departamento de Física and Centro de Física Teórica de Partículas - CFTP, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); ISEL - Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa, Rua Conselheiro Emídio Navarro, 1959-007 Lisboa (Portugal)
2017-01-10
We look for all weak bases that lead to texture zeroes in the quark mass matrices and contain a minimal number of parameters in the framework of the standard model. Since there are ten physical observables, namely, six nonvanishing quark masses, three mixing angles and one CP phase, the maximum number of texture zeroes in both quark sectors is altogether nine. The nine zero entries can only be distributed between the up- and down-quark sectors in matrix pairs with six and three texture zeroes or five and four texture zeroes. In the weak basis where a quark mass matrix is nonsingular and has six zeroes in one sector, we find that there are 54 matrices with three zeroes in the other sector, obtainable through right-handed weak basis transformations. It is also found that all pairs composed of a nonsingular matrix with five zeroes and a nonsingular and nondecoupled matrix with four zeroes simply correspond to a weak basis choice. Without any further assumptions, none of these pairs of up- and down-quark mass matrices has physical content. It is shown that all non-weak-basis pairs of quark mass matrices that contain nine zeroes are not compatible with current experimental data. The particular case of the so-called nearest-neighbour-interaction pattern is also discussed.
Tecza, Matthias; Thatte, Niranjan; Clarke, Fraser; Freeman, David; Kosmalski, Johan
2012-09-01
HARMONI, the High Angular Resolution Monolithic Optical & Near-infrared Integral field spectrograph is one of two first-light instruments for the European Extremely Large Telescope. Over a 256x128 pixel field-of-view HARMONI will simultaneously measure approximately 32,000 spectra. Each spectrum is about 4000 spectral pixels long, and covers a selectable part of the 0.47-2.45 μm wavelength range at resolving powers of either R≍4000, 10000, or 20000. All 32,000 spectra are imaged onto eight HAWAII4RG detectors using a multiplexing scheme that divides the input field into four sub-fields, each imaged onto one image slicer that in turn re-arranges a single sub-field into two long exit slits feeding one spectrograph each. In total we require eight spectrographs, each with one HAWAII4RG detector. A system of articulated and exchangeable fold-mirrors and VPH gratings allows one to select different spectral resolving powers and wavelength ranges of interest while keeping a fixed geometry between the spectrograph collimator and camera avoiding the need for an articulated grating and camera. In this paper we describe both the field splitting and image slicing optics as well as the optics that will be used to select both spectral resolving power and wavelength range.
Determination of the S-wave scattering shape parameter P from the zero-energy wave function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kermode, M.W.; van Dijk, W.
1990-01-01
We show that for S-wave scattering at an energy k 2 by a local potential which supports no more than one bound state, the shape parameter P and coefficients of higher powers of k 2 in the effective range expansion function cotδ=-1/a+1/2 r 0 k 2 -Pr 0 3 k 3 +Qr 0 5 k 6 +..., where δ is the phase shift, may be obtained from the zero-energy wave function, u 0 (r). Thus δ itself may be determined from u 0 . We show that Pr 0 3 =∫ 0 R [β(r)u 0 2 (r)-bar β(r)bar u 0 2 (r)]dr, where r 0 is the effective range, β(r) is determined from an integral involving the wave function, and bar β(r) is a simple function of r which involves the scattering length and effective range
Rashba split surface states in BiTeBr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eremeev, S V; Rusinov, I P; Nechaev, I A; Chulkov, E V
2013-01-01
Within density functional theory, we study the bulk band structure and surface states of BiTeBr. We consider both ordered and disordered phases, which differ in atomic order in the Te–Br sublattice. On the basis of relativistic ab initio calculations, we show that the ordered BiTeBr is energetically preferable as compared with the disordered one. We demonstrate that both Te- and Br-terminated surfaces of the ordered BiTeBr hold surface states with a giant spin–orbit splitting. The Te-terminated surface-state spin splitting has Rashba-type behavior with the coupling parameter α R ∼ 2 eVÅ. (paper)
Splitting of quantum information in travelling wave fields using only linear optical elements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cardoso, W B; De Almeida, N G; Avelar, A T; Baseia, B [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Goias, 74.001-970, Goiania-GO (Brazil)
2011-02-28
In this paper we present a feasible post-selection scheme to split quantum information in the realm of travelling waves with success probability of 50%. Taking advantage of this scheme we have also proposed the generation of a class of W states useful for perfect teleportation and superdense coding. The scheme employs only linear optical elements as beam splitters (BS) and phase shifters, plus two photon counters and a source of two spontaneous parametric down-conversion photons. It is shown that splitting of quantum information with high fidelity is possible, even when using inefficient detectors and photoabsorption BS.
Majorana zero modes in superconductor-semiconductor heterostructures
Lutchyn, R. M.; Bakkers, E. P. A. M.; Kouwenhoven, L. P.; Krogstrup, P.; Marcus, C. M.; Oreg, Y.
2018-05-01
Realizing topological superconductivity and Majorana zero modes in the laboratory is a major goal in condensed-matter physics. In this Review, we survey the current status of this rapidly developing field, focusing on proposals for the realization of topological superconductivity in semiconductor-superconductor heterostructures. We examine materials science progress in growing InAs and InSb semiconductor nanowires and characterizing these systems. We then discuss the observation of robust signatures of Majorana zero modes in recent experiments, paying particular attention to zero-bias tunnelling conduction measurements and Coulomb blockade experiments. We also outline several next-generation experiments probing exotic properties of Majorana zero modes, including fusion rules and non-Abelian exchange statistics. Finally, we discuss prospects for implementing Majorana-based topological quantum computation.
Retrieval of effective cloud field parameters from radiometric data
Paulescu, Marius; Badescu, Viorel; Brabec, Marek
2017-06-01
Clouds play a key role in establishing the Earth's climate. Real cloud fields are very different and very complex in both morphological and microphysical senses. Consequently, the numerical description of the cloud field is a critical task for accurate climate modeling. This study explores the feasibility of retrieving the effective cloud field parameters (namely the cloud aspect ratio and cloud factor) from systematic radiometric measurements at high frequency (measurement is taken every 15 s). Two different procedures are proposed, evaluated, and discussed with respect to both physical and numerical restrictions. None of the procedures is classified as best; therefore, the specific advantages and weaknesses are discussed. It is shown that the relationship between the cloud shade and point cloudiness computed using the estimated cloud field parameters recovers the typical relationship derived from measurements.
The zero mass limit in Yang-Mills theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dombey, N.
1976-01-01
The zero mass limit of massive Yang-Mills theory is investigated and it is shown that there is a conflict between Lorentz invariance and the internal symmetry group in the theory. A necessary but not sufficient condition for the resolution of this conflict is the introduction of zero mass scalar fields. (author)
Polarization Insensitivity in Double-Split Ring and Triple-Split Ring Terahertz Resonators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu Qian-Nan; Lan Feng; Tang Xiao-Pin; Yang Zi-Qiang
2015-01-01
A modified double-split ring resonator and a modified triple-split ring resonator, which offer polarization-insensitive performance, are investigated, designed and fabricated. By displacing the two gaps of the conventional double-split ring resonator away from the center, the second resonant frequency for the 0° polarized wave and the resonant frequency for the 90° polarized wave become increasingly close to each other until they are finally identical. Theoretical and experimental results show that the modified double-split ring resonator and the modified triple-split ring resonator are insensitive to different polarized waves and show strong resonant frequency dips near 433 and 444 GHz, respectively. The results of this work suggest new opportunities for the investigation and design of polarization-dependent terahertz devices based on split ring resonators. (paper)
Zero-modes of non-Abelian solitons in three-dimensional gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eto, Minoru; Gudnason, Sven Bjarke
2011-01-01
We study non-Abelian solitons of the Bogomol'nyi type in N=2 (d = 2 + 1) supersymmetric Chern-Simons (CS) and Yang-Mills (YM) theory with a generic gauge group. In CS theory, we find topological, non-topological and semi-local (non-)topological vortices of non-Abelian kinds in unbroken, broken and partially broken vacua. We calculate the number of zero-modes using an index theorem and then we apply the moduli matrix formalism to realize the moduli parameters. For the topological solitons we exhaust all the moduli while we study several examples of the non-topological and semi-local solitons. We find that the zero-modes of the topological solitons are governed by the moduli matrix H 0 only and those of the non-topological solitons are governed by both H 0 and the gauge invariant field Ω. We prove local uniqueness of the master equation in the YM case and finally compare all results between the CS and YM theories.
Zeeman splitting of surface-scattered neutrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Felcher, G.P.; Adenwalla, S.; De Haan, V.O.; Van Well, A.A.
1995-01-01
If a beam of slow neutrons impinges on a solid at grazing incidence, the neutrons reflected can be used to probe the composition and magnetization of the solid near its surface. In this process, the incident and reflected neutrons generally have identical kinetic energies. Here we report the results of an experiment in which subtle inelastic scattering processes are revealed as relatively large deviations in scattering angle. The neutrons are scattered from a ferromagnetic surface in the presence of a strong ambient magnetic field, and exhibit a small but significant variation in kinetic energy as a function of the reflection angle. This effect is attributable to the Zeeman splitting of the energies of the neutron spin states due to the ambient magnetic field: some neutrons flip their spins upon reflection from the magnetized surface, thereby exchanging kinetic energy for magnetic potential energy. The subtle effects of Zeeman splitting are amplified by the extreme sensitivity of grazing-angle neutron scattering, and might also provide a useful spectroscopic tool if significant practical obstacles (such as low interaction cross-sections) can be overcome. (author)
Klee, H. W.; McDowell, M. W.
1986-02-01
The use of the zero power corrector concept has been extended to the design of microscope objectives. Several four and five-element designs are described which include a flat field 10x design of 0.25 numerical aperture and a 40x design of 0.65 numerical aperture.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsoupros, George
2002-01-01
The character of quantum corrections to the gravitational action of a conformally invariant field theory for a self-interacting scalar field on a manifold with boundary is considered at third loop-order in the perturbative expansion of the zero-point function. Diagramatic evaluations and higher loop-order renormalization can be best accomplished on a Riemannian manifold of positive constant curvature accommodating a boundary of constant extrinsic curvature. The associated spherical formulation for diagramatic evaluations reveals a non-trivial effect which the topology of the manifold has on the vacuum processes and which ultimately dissociates the dynamical behaviour of the quantized field from its behaviour in the absence of a boundary. The first surface divergence is evaluated and the necessity for simultaneous renormalization of volume and surface divergences is shown
Bad splits in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy: systematic review of fracture patterns.
Steenen, S A; Becking, A G
2016-07-01
An unfavourable and unanticipated pattern of the mandibular sagittal split osteotomy is generally referred to as a 'bad split'. Few restorative techniques to manage the situation have been described. In this article, a classification of reported bad split pattern types is proposed and appropriate salvage procedures to manage the different types of undesired fracture are presented. A systematic review was undertaken, yielding a total of 33 studies published between 1971 and 2015. These reported a total of 458 cases of bad splits among 19,527 sagittal ramus osteotomies in 10,271 patients. The total reported incidence of bad split was 2.3% of sagittal splits. The most frequently encountered were buccal plate fractures of the proximal segment (types 1A-F) and lingual fractures of the distal segment (types 2A and 2B). Coronoid fractures (type 3) and condylar neck fractures (type 4) have seldom been reported. The various types of bad split may require different salvage approaches. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Electron refrigeration in hybrid structures with spin-split superconductors
Rouco, M.; Heikkilä, T. T.; Bergeret, F. S.
2018-01-01
Electron tunneling between superconductors and normal metals has been used for an efficient refrigeration of electrons in the latter. Such cooling is a nonlinear effect and usually requires a large voltage. Here we study the electron cooling in heterostructures based on superconductors with a spin-splitting field coupled to normal metals via spin-filtering barriers. The cooling power shows a linear term in the applied voltage. This improves the coefficient of performance of electron refrigeration in the normal metal by shifting its optimum cooling to lower voltage, and also allows for cooling the spin-split superconductor by reverting the sign of the voltage. We also show how tunnel coupling spin-split superconductors with regular ones allows for a highly efficient refrigeration of the latter.
Zero-point energy of confined fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milton, K.A.
1980-01-01
A closed form for the reduced Green's function of massless fermions in the interior of a spherical bag is obtained. In terms of this Green's function, the corresponding zero-point or Casimir energy is computed. It is proposed that a resulting quadratic divergence can be absorbed by renormalizing a suitable parameter in the bag model (that is, absorbed by a contact term). The residual Casimir stress is attractive, but smaller than the repulsive Casimir stress of gluons in the model. The result for the total zero-point energy is in substantial disagreement with bag model phenomenological values
Partition function zeros of the one-dimensional Potts model: the recursive method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghulghazaryan, R G; Ananikian, N S
2003-01-01
The Yang-Lee, Fisher and Potts zeros of the one-dimensional Q-state Potts model are studied using the theory of dynamical systems. An exact recurrence relation for the partition function is derived. It is shown that zeros of the partition function may be associated with neutral fixed points of the recurrence relation. Further, a general equation for zeros of the partition function is found and a classification of the Yang-Lee, Fisher and Potts zeros is given. It is shown that the Fisher zeros in a nonzero magnetic field are located on several lines in the complex temperature plane and that the number of these lines depends on the value of the magnetic field. Analytical expressions for the densities of the Yang-Lee, Fisher and Potts zeros are derived. It is shown that densities of all types of zeros of the partition function are singular at the edge singularity points with the same critical exponent
Kassahun, Wondwosen; Neyens, Thomas; Molenberghs, Geert; Faes, Christel; Verbeke, Geert
2014-11-10
Count data are collected repeatedly over time in many applications, such as biology, epidemiology, and public health. Such data are often characterized by the following three features. First, correlation due to the repeated measures is usually accounted for using subject-specific random effects, which are assumed to be normally distributed. Second, the sample variance may exceed the mean, and hence, the theoretical mean-variance relationship is violated, leading to overdispersion. This is usually allowed for based on a hierarchical approach, combining a Poisson model with gamma distributed random effects. Third, an excess of zeros beyond what standard count distributions can predict is often handled by either the hurdle or the zero-inflated model. A zero-inflated model assumes two processes as sources of zeros and combines a count distribution with a discrete point mass as a mixture, while the hurdle model separately handles zero observations and positive counts, where then a truncated-at-zero count distribution is used for the non-zero state. In practice, however, all these three features can appear simultaneously. Hence, a modeling framework that incorporates all three is necessary, and this presents challenges for the data analysis. Such models, when conditionally specified, will naturally have a subject-specific interpretation. However, adopting their purposefully modified marginalized versions leads to a direct marginal or population-averaged interpretation for parameter estimates of covariate effects, which is the primary interest in many applications. In this paper, we present a marginalized hurdle model and a marginalized zero-inflated model for correlated and overdispersed count data with excess zero observations and then illustrate these further with two case studies. The first dataset focuses on the Anopheles mosquito density around a hydroelectric dam, while adolescents' involvement in work, to earn money and support their families or themselves, is
Parameter determination in a groundwater field polluted by radioactive pollutant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sidauruk, P.; Barokah A; Syafalni; Wibagiyo
1998-01-01
The determination of source location and the corresponding parameters in a contaminated groundwater is very important. To be able to predict the distribution of radioactive contaminant in a contaminated field, the knowledge about the source location and the corresponding parameters is a necessity. The model developed in this paper is based on the fact that the relation between the logarithm of the concentration of the radio active contaminant with the squared coordinate is linear. The contaminant transport parameters as well as the a straight line. In other words, the parameters and the source location are determined in a such way that the linear correlation coefficient between the logarithm of the concentration of the radio active contaminant with the squared coordinate is optimized. The developed model is tested with a synthetic data with a satisfactory results. The synthetic data is generated such that can represent the real field. The synthetic data are generated because the real field data is not available. (authors)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Escobedo, R. [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y Ciencias de la Computacion, Universidad de Cantabria, 39005 Santander (Spain); Carretero, M.; Bonilla, L.L. [G. Millan Institute, Fluid Dynamics, Nanoscience and Industrial Maths., Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain); Unidad Asociada al Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, CSIC, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Platero, G. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, CSIC, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)
2010-04-15
The response of an n-doped dc voltage biased II-VI multi-quantum well dilute magnetic semiconductor nanostructure having its first well doped with magnetic (Mn) impurities is analyzed by sweeping wide ranges of both the voltage and the Zeeman level splitting induced by an external magnetic field. The level splitting versus voltage phase diagram shows regions of stable self-sustained current oscillations immersed in a region of stable stationary states. Transitions between stationary states and self-sustained current oscillations are systematically analyzed by both voltage and level splitting abrupt switching. Sudden voltage or/and magnetic field changes may switch on current oscillations from an initial stationary state, and reciprocally, current oscillations may disappear after sudden changes of voltage or/and magnetic field changes into the stable stationary states region. The results show how to design such a device to operate as a spin injector and a spin oscillator by tuning the Zeeman splitting (through the applied external magnetic field), the applied voltage and the sample configuration parameters (doping density, barrier and well widths, etc.) to select the desired stationary or oscillatory behavior. Phase diagram of Zeeman level splitting {delta} vs. dimensionless applied voltage {phi} for N = 10 QWs. White region: stable stationary states; black: stable self-sustained current oscillations. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Split and collectorless flotation to medium coking coal fines for multi-product zero waste concept
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dey, Shobhana; Bhattacharyya, K.K. [Mineral Processing Division, National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur-831007 (India)
2007-06-15
The medium coking coal fines of - 0.5 mm from Jharia coal field were taken for this investigation. The release analysis of the composite coal reveals that yield is very low at 10.0% ash, about 25% at 14% ash and 50% at 17% ash level. The low yield is caused by the presence of high ash finer fraction. The size-wise ash analysis of - 0.5 mm coal indicated that - 0.5 + 0.15 mm fraction contains less ash than - 0.15 mm fraction. Thus, the composite feed was split into - 0.5 + 0.15 mm and - 0.15 mm fractions and subjected to flotation separately. The low ash bearing fraction (- 0.5 + 0.15 mm) was subjected to two stages collectorless flotation to achieve the concentrate with 10% ash. The cleaner concentrate (18.9%) with 10% ash was recovered which has an application in metallurgical industries. The concentrate of 30.2% yield with 12.5% ash could be achieved in one stage collectorless flotation which is suitable for use in coke making as sweetener. As the - 0.15 mm fraction contains relatively high ash, collector aided flotation using sodium silicate was performed to get a concentrate of 23.6% yield with about 17% ash. The blending of this product with cleaner tail obtained from - 0.5 + 0.15 mm produces about 35.0% yield with 17% ash and that can be utilized for coke making. The reject from the two fractions can be used for conventional thermal power plant or cement industries using a 23.5% ash after one stage collector aided flotation and the final tailings produced content ash of 61.6% can be used for fluidization combustion bed (FBC). This eventually leads to complete utilization of coal. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Novitsky, Andrey; Galynsky, Vladimir M.; Zhukovsky, Sergei
2012-01-01
The electronic Lorentz theory is employed to explain the optical properties of planar split-ring metamaterials. Starting from the dynamics of individual free carriers, the electromagnetic response of an individual split-ring meta-atom is determined, and the effective permittivity tensor...... of the metamaterial is calculated for normal incidence of light. Whenever the split ring lacks in-plane mirror symmetry, the corresponding permittivity tensor has a crystallographic structure of an elliptically dichroic medium, and the metamaterial exhibits optical properties of planar chiral structures. Its...... transmission spectra are different for right-handed versus left-handed circular polarization of the incident wave, so the structure changes its transmittance when the direction of incidence is reversed. The magnitude of this change is shown to be related to the geometric parameters of the split ring...
Modelling of uranium/plutonium splitting in purex process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boullis, B.; Baron, P.
1987-06-01
A mathematical model simulating the highly complex uranium/plutonium splitting operation in PUREX process has been achieved by the french ''Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique''. The development of such a model, which includes transfer and redox reactions kinetics for all the species involved, required an important experimental work in the field of basis chemical data acquisition. The model has been successfully validated by comparison of its results with those of specific trials achieved (at laboratory scale), and with the available results of the french reprocessing units operation. It has then been used for the design of french new plants splitting operations
Spinors fields in co-dimension one braneworlds
Mendes, W. M.; Alencar, G.; Landim, R. R.
2018-02-01
In this work we analyze the zero mode localization and resonances of 1/2-spin fermions in co-dimension one Randall-Sundrum braneworld scenarios. We consider delta-like, domain walls and deformed domain walls membranes. Beyond the influence of the spacetime dimension D we also consider three types of couplings: (i) the standard Yukawa coupling with the scalar field and parameter η 1, (ii) a Yukawa-dilaton coupling with two parameters η 2 and λ and (iii) a dilaton derivative coupling with parameter h. Together with the deformation parameter s, we end up with five free parameter to be considered. For the zero mode we find that the localization is dependent of D, because the spinorial representation changes when the bulk dimensionality is odd or even and must be treated separately. For case (i) we find that in odd dimensions only one chirality can be localized and for even dimension a massless Dirac spinor is trapped over the brane. In the cases (ii) and (iii) we find that for some values of the parameters, both chiralities can be localized in odd dimensions and for even dimensions we obtain that the massless Dirac spinor is trapped over the brane. We also calculated numerically resonances for cases (ii) and (iii) by using the transfer matrix method. We find that, for deformed defects, the increasing of D induces a shift in the peaks of resonances. For a given λ with domain walls, we find that the resonances can show up by changing the spacetime dimensionality. For example, the same case in D = 5 do not induces resonances but when we consider D = 10 one peak of resonance is found. Therefore the introduction of more dimensions, diversely from the bosonic case, can change drastically the zero mode and resonances in fermion fields.
Low coercive field and conducting nanocomposite formed by Fe3O4 and poly(thiophene)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva, R.A.; Santos, M.J.L.; Rinaldi, A.W.; Zarbin, A.J.G.; Oliveira, M.M.; Santos, I.A.; Cotica, L.F.; Coellho, A.A.; Rubira, A.F.; Girotto, E.M.
2007-01-01
Magnetite and poly(thiophene) composites have been produced by in situ monomer oxidation. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the presence of Fe 3 O 4 as particle agglomerates ranging from 15 to ca. 54 nm in size. Transmission electron micrographs (TEMs) revealed a face-to-face structure in both the pure magnetite and the nanocomposite. Typical superparamagnetic (ferrimagnetic) curves have been observed, whereas the relatively weak magnetic field employed in measurement, 200 Oe, was sufficient to split the curves completely. Zero field cooling (ZFC) and field cooling (FC) curves coincide only above room temperature, indicating that the characteristic blocking temperature (T B ) for superparamagnetic particles in this assembly is above room temperature. - Graphical abstract: TEM image of magnetite/poly(thiophene) nanocomposite
Importance of Nonperturbative QCD Parameters for Bottom Mesons
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Upadhyay
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The importance of nonperturbative quantum chromodynamics (QCD parameters is discussed in context to the predicting power for bottom meson masses and isospin splitting. In the framework of heavy quark effective theory, the work presented here focuses on the different allowed values of the two nonperturbative QCD parameters used in heavy quark effective theory formula, and using the best fitted parameter, masses of the excited bottom meson states in jp=1/2+ doublet in strange and nonstrange sectors are calculated here. The calculated masses are found to be matching well with experiments and other phenomenological models. The mass splitting and hyperfine splitting have also been analyzed for both strange and nonstrange heavy mesons with respect to spin and flavor symmetries.
Millimeter wave detection via Autler-Townes splitting in rubidium Rydberg atoms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gordon, Joshua A., E-mail: josh.gordon@nist.gov; Holloway, Christopher L. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Electromagnetics Division, U.S. Department of Commerce, Boulder Laboratories, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Schwarzkopf, Andrew; Anderson, Dave A.; Miller, Stephanie; Thaicharoen, Nithiwadee; Raithel, Georg [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)
2014-07-14
In this paper, we demonstrate the detection of millimeter waves via Autler-Townes splitting in {sup 85}Rb Rydberg atoms. This method may provide an independent, atom-based, SI-traceable method for measuring mm-wave electric fields, which addresses a gap in current calibration techniques in the mm-wave regime. The electric-field amplitude within a rubidium vapor cell in the WR-10 wave guide band is measured for frequencies of 93.71 GHz and 104.77 GHz. Relevant aspects of Autler-Townes splitting originating from a four-level electromagnetically induced transparency scheme are discussed. We measured the E-field generated by an open-ended waveguide using this technique. Experimental results are compared to a full-wave finite element simulation.
Market Structure and Stock Splits
David Michayluk; Paul Kofman
2001-01-01
Enhanced liquidity is one possible motivation for stock splits but empirical research frequently documents declines in liquidity following stock splits. Despite almost thirty years of inquiry, little is known about all the changes in a stock's trading activity following a stock split. We examine how liquidity measures change around more than 2,500 stock splits and find a pervasive decline in most measures. Large stock splits exhibit a more severe liquidity decline than small stock splits, esp...
Zosso, Dominique; Bresson, Xavier; Thiran, Jean-Philippe
2014-02-01
In this paper, we present an efficient numerical scheme for the recently introduced geodesic active fields (GAF) framework for geometric image registration. This framework considers the registration task as a weighted minimal surface problem. Hence, the data-term and the regularization-term are combined through multiplication in a single, parametrization invariant and geometric cost functional. The multiplicative coupling provides an intrinsic, spatially varying and data-dependent tuning of the regularization strength, and the parametrization invariance allows working with images of nonflat geometry, generally defined on any smoothly parametrizable manifold. The resulting energy-minimizing flow, however, has poor numerical properties. Here, we provide an efficient numerical scheme that uses a splitting approach; data and regularity terms are optimized over two distinct deformation fields that are constrained to be equal via an augmented Lagrangian approach. Our approach is more flexible than standard Gaussian regularization, since one can interpolate freely between isotropic Gaussian and anisotropic TV-like smoothing. In this paper, we compare the geodesic active fields method with the popular Demons method and three more recent state-of-the-art algorithms: NL-optical flow, MRF image registration, and landmark-enhanced large displacement optical flow. Thus, we can show the advantages of the proposed FastGAF method. It compares favorably against Demons, both in terms of registration speed and quality. Over the range of example applications, it also consistently produces results not far from more dedicated state-of-the-art methods, illustrating the flexibility of the proposed framework.
The case for research into the zero accident vision
Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.; Aaltonen, M.; Wybo,J.L.; Saari, J.; Kines, P.; Beeck, R. op de
2013-01-01
This discussion paper is written out of a concern. We noticed that many companies with a good safety reputation have adopted a zero accident vision, yet there is very little scientific research in this field. The zero accident vision addresses the accidents causing deaths and severe injuries among
Field-sensitivity To Rheological Parameters
Freund, Jonathan; Ewoldt, Randy
2017-11-01
We ask this question: where in a flow is a quantity of interest Q quantitatively sensitive to the model parameters θ-> describing the rheology of the fluid? This field sensitivity is computed via the numerical solution of the adjoint flow equations, as developed to expose the target sensitivity δQ / δθ-> (x) via the constraint of satisfying the flow equations. Our primary example is a sphere settling in Carbopol, for which we have experimental data. For this Carreau-model configuration, we simultaneously calculate how much a local change in the fluid intrinsic time-scale λ, limit-viscosities ηo and η∞, and exponent n would affect the drag D. Such field sensitivities can show where different fluid physics in the model (time scales, elastic versus viscous components, etc.) are important for the target observable and generally guide model refinement based on predictive goals. In this case, the computational cost of solving the local sensitivity problem is negligible relative to the flow. The Carreau-fluid/sphere example is illustrative; the utility of field sensitivity is in the design and analysis of less intuitive flows, for which we provide some additional examples.
Electron and nuclear spin interactions in the optical spectra of single GaAs quantum dots.
Gammon, D; Efros, A L; Kennedy, T A; Rosen, M; Katzer, D S; Park, D; Brown, S W; Korenev, V L; Merkulov, I A
2001-05-28
Fine and hyperfine splittings arising from electron, hole, and nuclear spin interactions in the magneto-optical spectra of individual localized excitons are studied. We explain the magnetic field dependence of the energy splitting through competition between Zeeman, exchange, and hyperfine interactions. An unexpectedly small hyperfine contribution to the splitting close to zero applied field is described well by the interplay between fluctuations of the hyperfine field experienced by the nuclear spin and nuclear dipole/dipole interactions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chirde, V.R.; Shekh, S.H.
2016-01-01
The modified theories of gravity have engrossed much attention in the last decade, especially f(R) gravity. In this contextual exploration, we investigate interaction between barotropic fluid and dark energy with zero-mass scalar field for the spatially homogeneous and isotropic flat FRW universe. In this universe, the field equations correspond to the particular choice of f(R) = R+bR m . The exact solutions of the field equations are obtained by applying volumetric power law and exponential law of expansion. In power and exponential law of expansion, the universe shows both matter dominated and DE era for b ≤ 0 and b ≥ 0 and remain present in dark era respectively, but power law model is fully occupying with real matter for b > 0 and for b < 0 exponential model expands with negative pressure and remain present in matter dominated phase respectively. The physical behavior of the universe has been discussed by using some physical quantities
Split and Splice Approach for Highly Selective Targeting of Human NSCLC Tumors
2014-10-01
development and implementation of the “split-and- spice ” approach required optimization of many independent parameters, which were addressed in parallel...verify the feasibility of the “split and splice” approach for targeting human NSCLC tumor cell lines in culture and prepare the optimized toxins for...for cultured cells (months 2- 8). 2B. To test the efficiency of cell targeting by the toxin variants reconstituted in vitro (months 3-6). 2C. To
Parametric excitation of the J=2+ modes by zero sound in superfluid 3He-B
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sauls, J.A.; McKenzie, R.H.
1991-01-01
We discuss order-parameter collective modes in weakly inhomogeneous states of superfluid 3 He-B, i.e., states in which the scale of the inhomogeneities is considerably longer than the coherence length ξ 0 =v t /2πTc and the energy associated with the inhomogeneity is small compared to the condensation energy. The theory describes resonance phenomena between order-parameter modes and zero sound. We discuss two specific cases, both of which involve excitation of the J=2 + modes via a parametric field that lifts the selection rule due to particle-hole symmetry. In the case of a static superflow the modes with J=2 + , M=±1 couple to sound for qparallelH, and should be observable as Zeeman states with a maximum absorption that scales as the square of the superflow velocity. The J=2 + modes may also be excited parametrically in a three-wave resonance process involving two zero-sound phonons. We summarize the nonlinear response theory for two-phonon excitation of these modes. (orig.)
Electroweak splitting functions and high energy showering
Chen, Junmou; Han, Tao; Tweedie, Brock
2017-11-01
We derive the electroweak (EW) collinear splitting functions for the Standard Model, including the massive fermions, gauge bosons and the Higgs boson. We first present the splitting functions in the limit of unbroken SU(2) L × U(1) Y and discuss their general features in the collinear and soft-collinear regimes. These are the leading contributions at a splitting scale ( k T ) far above the EW scale ( v). We then systematically incorporate EW symmetry breaking (EWSB), which leads to the emergence of additional "ultra-collinear" splitting phenomena and naive violations of the Goldstone-boson Equivalence Theorem. We suggest a particularly convenient choice of non-covariant gauge (dubbed "Goldstone Equivalence Gauge") that disentangles the effects of Goldstone bosons and gauge fields in the presence of EWSB, and allows trivial book-keeping of leading power corrections in v/ k T . We implement a comprehensive, practical EW showering scheme based on these splitting functions using a Sudakov evolution formalism. Novel features in the implementation include a complete accounting of ultra-collinear effects, matching between shower and decay, kinematic back-reaction corrections in multi-stage showers, and mixed-state evolution of neutral bosons ( γ/ Z/ h) using density-matrices. We employ the EW showering formalism to study a number of important physical processes at O (1-10 TeV) energies. They include (a) electroweak partons in the initial state as the basis for vector-boson-fusion; (b) the emergence of "weak jets" such as those initiated by transverse gauge bosons, with individual splitting probabilities as large as O (35%); (c) EW showers initiated by top quarks, including Higgs bosons in the final state; (d) the occurrence of O (1) interference effects within EW showers involving the neutral bosons; and (e) EW corrections to new physics processes, as illustrated by production of a heavy vector boson ( W ') and the subsequent showering of its decay products.
Heterotic string in an arbitrary background field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sen, A.
1985-01-01
An expression for the light-cone gauge action for the first-quantized heterotic string in the presence of arbitrary background gauge, gravitational, and antisymmetric tensor fields is derived. The result is a two-dimensional local field theory with N = 1/2 supersymmetry. The constraints imposed on the background fields in order to make this theory one-loop finite are derived. These constraints are identical to the equations of motion for the massless fields at the linearized level. Finally, it is shown that if there is no background antisymmetric tensor field, and if the gauge connection is set equal to the spin connection, the effective action is that of an N = 1 supersymmetric nonlinear and N = 2 supersymmetric Georgi-Glashow models the occurrence of the fermion fractionization is the necessity; the ignorance of it results in the inconsistency in the perturbative calculation of the mass splittings among the members of the supermultiplets. The notable feature of our result is that the degeneracy due to the Jackiw-Rebbi zero mode is not independent of the one required by the supersymmetry, suggesting a nontrivial structure in embedding the topology of Higgs fields into supersymmetric gauge theories
Zero Gravity Research Facility (Zero-G)
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Zero Gravity Research Facility (Zero-G) provides a near weightless or microgravity environment for a duration of 5.18 seconds. This is accomplished by allowing...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chi Zhang
2015-05-01
Full Text Available To model correlated bivariate count data with extra zero observations, this paper proposes two new bivariate zero-inflated generalized Poisson (ZIGP distributions by incorporating a multiplicative factor (or dependency parameter λ, named as Type I and Type II bivariate ZIGP distributions, respectively. The proposed distributions possess a flexible correlation structure and can be used to fit either positively or negatively correlated and either over- or under-dispersed count data, comparing to the existing models that can only fit positively correlated count data with over-dispersion. The two marginal distributions of Type I bivariate ZIGP share a common parameter of zero inflation while the two marginal distributions of Type II bivariate ZIGP have their own parameters of zero inflation, resulting in a much wider range of applications. The important distributional properties are explored and some useful statistical inference methods including maximum likelihood estimations of parameters, standard errors estimation, bootstrap confidence intervals and related testing hypotheses are developed for the two distributions. A real data are thoroughly analyzed by using the proposed distributions and statistical methods. Several simulation studies are conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed methods.
Zeroes of functions of Fresnel complementary integral type
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mario Alberto Villalobos Arias
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Theoretical upper and lower bounds are established for zeroes of a parametric family of functions which are defined by integrals of the same type as the Fresnel complementary integral. Asymptotic properties for these bounds are obtained as well as monotony properties of the localization intervals. Given the value of the parameter an analytical-numerical procedure is deduced to enclose all zeros of a given function with an a priori error.
Mechanisms of zero-lag synchronization in cortical motifs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leonardo L Gollo
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Zero-lag synchronization between distant cortical areas has been observed in a diversity of experimental data sets and between many different regions of the brain. Several computational mechanisms have been proposed to account for such isochronous synchronization in the presence of long conduction delays: Of these, the phenomenon of "dynamical relaying"--a mechanism that relies on a specific network motif--has proven to be the most robust with respect to parameter mismatch and system noise. Surprisingly, despite a contrary belief in the community, the common driving motif is an unreliable means of establishing zero-lag synchrony. Although dynamical relaying has been validated in empirical and computational studies, the deeper dynamical mechanisms and comparison to dynamics on other motifs is lacking. By systematically comparing synchronization on a variety of small motifs, we establish that the presence of a single reciprocally connected pair--a "resonance pair"--plays a crucial role in disambiguating those motifs that foster zero-lag synchrony in the presence of conduction delays (such as dynamical relaying from those that do not (such as the common driving triad. Remarkably, minor structural changes to the common driving motif that incorporate a reciprocal pair recover robust zero-lag synchrony. The findings are observed in computational models of spiking neurons, populations of spiking neurons and neural mass models, and arise whether the oscillatory systems are periodic, chaotic, noise-free or driven by stochastic inputs. The influence of the resonance pair is also robust to parameter mismatch and asymmetrical time delays amongst the elements of the motif. We call this manner of facilitating zero-lag synchrony resonance-induced synchronization, outline the conditions for its occurrence, and propose that it may be a general mechanism to promote zero-lag synchrony in the brain.
Zeroing and testing units developed for Gerdien atmospheric ion detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kolarz, P.; Marinkovic, B.P.; Filipovic, D.M.
2005-01-01
Low current measurements in atmospheric ion detection using a Gerdien condenser are subjected to numerous sources of error. Zeroing and testing units described in this article, connected as modules to this type of detector, enable some of these errors to be found and eliminated. The zeroing unit provides digital compensation of the zero drift with a digital sample and hold circuit of 12-bit resolution. It overcomes difficulties related to zero drift and techniques used in the zero conductivity determination when the accelerating potential or airflow rate are zero. The testing unit is a current reference of nominally 10 -12 A intended for testing and correcting the system on current leakage and other measuring deviations due to changes in atmospheric parameters. This unit is an independent battery-powered module, which provides a charge of 10 -12 C per cycle (frequency of order 1 Hz) to the collecting electrode. The control of Gerdien devices is substantially simplified using the zeroing and testing units realized here. Both units are used during 'zero conductivity' regime only
Adaptive multilevel splitting for Monte Carlo particle transport
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Louvin Henri
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In the Monte Carlo simulation of particle transport, and especially for shielding applications, variance reduction techniques are widely used to help simulate realisations of rare events and reduce the relative errors on the estimated scores for a given computation time. Adaptive Multilevel Splitting (AMS is one of these variance reduction techniques that has recently appeared in the literature. In the present paper, we propose an alternative version of the AMS algorithm, adapted for the first time to the field of particle transport. Within this context, it can be used to build an unbiased estimator of any quantity associated with particle tracks, such as flux, reaction rates or even non-Boltzmann tallies like pulse-height tallies and other spectra. Furthermore, the efficiency of the AMS algorithm is shown not to be very sensitive to variations of its input parameters, which makes it capable of significant variance reduction without requiring extended user effort.
A study on Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench response to split application of herbicides
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kaczmarek Sylwia
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Field experiments to evaluate the split application of mesotrione + s-metolachlor, mesotrione + terbuthylazine, dicamba + prosulfuron, terbuthylazine + mesotrione + s-metolachlor, and sulcotrione in the cultivation of sorghum var. Rona 1 were carried out in 2012 and 2013. The field tests were conducted at the field experimental station in Winna Góra, Poznań, Poland. Treatments with the herbicides were performed directly after sowing (PE and at leaf stage 1–2 (AE1 or at leaf stage 3–4 (AE2 of sorghum. The treatments were carried out in a laid randomized block design with 4 replications. The results showed that the tested herbicides applied at split doses were effective in weed control. After the herbicide application weed density and weed biomass were significantly reduced compared to the infested control. The best results were achieved after the application of mesotrione tank mixture with s-metolachlor and terbuthylazine. Application of split doses of herbicides was also correlated with the density, biomass, and height of sorghum.
Photoelectrochemical water splitting standards, experimental methods, and protocols
Chen, Zhebo; Miller, Eric
2014-01-01
This book outlines many of the techniques involved in materials development and characterization for photoelectrochemical (PEC) - for example, proper metrics for describing material performance, how to assemble testing cells and prepare materials for assessment of their properties, and how to perform the experimental measurements needed to achieve reliable results towards better scientific understanding. For each technique, proper procedure, benefits, limitations, and data interpretation are discussed. Consolidating this information in a short, accessible, and easy to read reference guide will allow researchers to more rapidly immerse themselves into PEC research and also better compare their results against those of other researchers to better advance materials development. This book serves as a "how-to" guide for researchers engaged in or interested in engaging in the field of photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. PEC water splitting is a rapidly growing field of research in which the goal is to deve...
Normal-Mode Splitting in a Weakly Coupled Optomechanical System
Rossi, Massimiliano; Kralj, Nenad; Zippilli, Stefano; Natali, Riccardo; Borrielli, Antonio; Pandraud, Gregory; Serra, Enrico; Di Giuseppe, Giovanni; Vitali, David
2018-02-01
Normal-mode splitting is the most evident signature of strong coupling between two interacting subsystems. It occurs when two subsystems exchange energy between themselves faster than they dissipate it to the environment. Here we experimentally show that a weakly coupled optomechanical system at room temperature can manifest normal-mode splitting when the pump field fluctuations are antisquashed by a phase-sensitive feedback loop operating close to its instability threshold. Under these conditions the optical cavity exhibits an effectively reduced decay rate, so that the system is effectively promoted to the strong coupling regime.
Prediction of Splitting Tensile Strength of Concrete Containing Zeolite and Diatomite by ANN
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Gülbandılar
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate with two different artificial neural network (ANN prediction model for the behavior of concrete containing zeolite and diatomite. For purpose of constructing this model, 7 different mixes with 63 specimens of the 28, 56 and 90 days splitting tensile strength experimental results of concrete containing zeolite, diatomite, both zeolite and diatomite used in training and testing for ANN systems was gathered from the tests. The data used in the ANN models are arranged in a format of seven input parameters that cover the age of samples, Portland cement, zeolite, diatomite, aggregate, water and hyper plasticizer and an output parameter which is splitting tensile strength of concrete. In the model, the training and testing results have shown that two different ANN systems have strong potential as a feasible tool for predicting 28, 56 and 90 days the splitting tensile strength of concrete containing zeolite and diatomite.
Split-phase motor running as capacitor starts motor and as capacitor run motor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yahaya Asizehi ENESI
2016-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the input parameters of a single phase split-phase induction motor is taken to investigate and to study the output performance characteristics of capacitor start and capacitor run induction motor. The value of these input parameters are used in the design characteristics of capacitor run and capacitor start motor with each motor connected to rated or standard capacitor in series with auxiliary winding or starting winding respectively for the normal operational condition. The magnitude of capacitor that will develop maximum torque in capacitor start motor and capacitor run motor are investigated and determined by simulation. Each of these capacitors is connected to the auxiliary winding of split-phase motor thereby transforming it into capacitor start or capacitor run motor. The starting current and starting torque of the split-phase motor (SPM, capacitor run motor (CRM and capacitor star motor (CSM are compared for their suitability in their operational performance and applications.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saharian, A A
2009-01-01
By using the generalized Abel-Plana formula, we derive a summation formula for the series over the zeros of a combination of the associated Legendre functions with respect to the degree. The summation formula for the series over the zeros of the combination of the Bessel functions, previously discussed in the literature, is obtained as a limiting case. As an application we evaluate the Wightman function for a scalar field with a general curvature coupling parameter in the region between concentric spherical shells on a background of constant negative curvature space. For the Dirichlet boundary conditions the corresponding mode-sum contains the series over the zeros of the combination of the associated Legendre functions. The application of the summation formula allows us to present the Wightman function in the form of the sum of two integrals. The first one corresponds to the Wightman function for the geometry of a single spherical shell and the second one is induced by the presence of the second shell. The boundary-induced part in the vacuum expectation value of the field squared is investigated. For points away from the boundaries the corresponding renormalization procedure is reduced to that for the boundary-free part.
Ishikawa, Rui; Tsunakawa, Hitoshi; Oinuma, Kohsuke; Michimura, Shinji; Taniguchi, Hiromi; Satoh, Kazuhiko; Ishii, Yasuyuki; Okamoto, Hiroyuki
2018-06-01
Detailed magnetization measurements enabled us to claim that the layered organic insulator κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Cl [BEDT-TTF: bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene] with the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction has an antiferromagnetic spin structure with the easy axis being the crystallographic c-axis and the net canting moment parallel to the a-axis at zero magnetic field. This zero-field spin structure is significantly different from that proposed in the past studies. The assignment was achieved by arguments including a correction of the direction of the weak ferromagnetism, reinterpretations of magnetization behaviors, and reasoning based on known high-field spin structures. We suggest that only the contributions of the strong intralayer antiferromagnetic interaction, the moderately weak Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, and the very weak interlayer ferromagnetic interaction can realize this spin structure. On the basis of this model, characteristic magnetic-field dependences of the magnetization can be interpreted as consequences of intriguing spin reorientations. The first reorientation is an unusual spin-flop transition under a magnetic field parallel to the b-axis. Although the existence of this transition is already known, the interpretation of what happens at this transition has been significantly revised. We suggest that this transition can be regarded as a spin-flop phenomenon of the local canting moment. We also claim that half of the spins rotate by 180° at this transition, in contrast to the conventional spin flop transition. The second reorientation is the gradual rotation of the spins during the variation of the magnetic field parallel to the c-axis. In this process, all the spins rotate around the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya vectors by 90°. The results of our simulation based on the classical spin model well reproduce these spin reorientation behaviors, which strongly support our claimed zero-field spin structure. The present study highlights the
Yu-Kang, Tu
2016-12-01
Network meta-analysis for multiple treatment comparisons has been a major development in evidence synthesis methodology. The validity of a network meta-analysis, however, can be threatened by inconsistency in evidence within the network. One particular issue of inconsistency is how to directly evaluate the inconsistency between direct and indirect evidence with regard to the effects difference between two treatments. A Bayesian node-splitting model was first proposed and a similar frequentist side-splitting model has been put forward recently. Yet, assigning the inconsistency parameter to one or the other of the two treatments or splitting the parameter symmetrically between the two treatments can yield different results when multi-arm trials are involved in the evaluation. We aimed to show that a side-splitting model can be viewed as a special case of design-by-treatment interaction model, and different parameterizations correspond to different design-by-treatment interactions. We demonstrated how to evaluate the side-splitting model using the arm-based generalized linear mixed model, and an example data set was used to compare results from the arm-based models with those from the contrast-based models. The three parameterizations of side-splitting make slightly different assumptions: the symmetrical method assumes that both treatments in a treatment contrast contribute to inconsistency between direct and indirect evidence, whereas the other two parameterizations assume that only one of the two treatments contributes to this inconsistency. With this understanding in mind, meta-analysts can then make a choice about how to implement the side-splitting method for their analysis. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Regularization of a λφ4 type tensor model, using point-splitting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moura Melo, W.A.; Helayel-Neto, J.A.
1997-01-01
The idea of using point-splitting to avoid field products in the same point was first introduced by Dirac. This splitting would be applied for example, redefining the fields present in a small vertex, at different points. More recently, Osland and Wu, in a series of papers presented used the idea as a regularization method. An generalized Lagrangian was obtained for the Qed, with interaction terms not presenting field products at the same point, exhibiting however non-locality problems. Nevertheless this fact, the authors obtained satisfactory results with this formulation, such as the Higgs mass (190 GeV) and the divergence free top quark (120 GeV). This work intends to obtain a generalized Lagrangian, modifying the original theory to avoid that the interaction terms present field products at the same point
Elastic gauge fields and Hall viscosity of Dirac magnons
Ferreiros, Yago; Vozmediano, María A. H.
2018-02-01
We analyze the coupling of elastic lattice deformations to the magnon degrees of freedom of magnon Dirac materials. For a honeycomb ferromagnet we find that, as happens in the case of graphene, elastic gauge fields appear coupled to the magnon pseudospinors. For deformations that induce constant pseudomagnetic fields, the spectrum around the Dirac nodes splits into pseudo-Landau levels. We show that when a Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction is considered, a topological gap opens in the system and a Chern-Simons effective action for the elastic degrees of freedom is generated. Such a term encodes a phonon Hall viscosity response, entirely generated by quantum fluctuations of magnons living in the vicinity of the Dirac points. The magnon Hall viscosity vanishes at zero temperature, and grows as temperature is raised and the states around the Dirac points are increasingly populated.
Schutt, D.; Breidt, J.; Corbalan Castejon, A.; Witt, D. R.
2017-12-01
Shear wave splitting is a commonly used and powerful method for constraining such phenomena as lithospheric strain history or asthenospheric flow. However, a number of challenges with the statistics of shear wave splitting have been noted. This creates difficulties in assessing whether two separate measurements are statistically similar or are indicating real differences in anisotropic structure, as well as for created proper station averaged sets of parameters for more complex situations such as multiple or dipping layers of anisotropy. We present a new method for calculating the most likely splitting parameters using the Menke and Levin [2003] method of cross-convolution. The Menke and Levin method is used because it can more readily be applied to a wider range of anisotropic scenarios than the commonly used Silver and Chan [1991] technique. In our approach, we derive a formula for the spectral density of a function of the microseismic noise and the impulse response of the correct anisotropic model that holds for the true anisotropic model parameters. This is compared to the spectral density of the observed signal convolved with the impulse response for an estimated set of anisotropic parameters. The most likely parameters are found when the former and latter spectral densities are the same. By using the Whittle likelihood to compare the two spectral densities, a likelihood grid for all possible anisotropic parameter values is generated. Using bootstrapping, the uncertainty and covariance between the various anisotropic parameters can be evaluated. We will show this works with a single layer of anisotropy and a vertically incident ray, and discuss the usefulness for a more complex case. The method shows great promise for calculating multiple layer anisotropy parameters with proper assessment of uncertainty. References: Menke, W., and Levin, V. 2003. The cross-convolution method for interpreting SKS splitting observations, with application to one and two
Constraining Proton Lifetime in SO(10) with Stabilized Doublet-Triplet Splitting
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Babu, K.S.; /Oklahoma State U.; Pati, Jogesh C.; /SLAC; Tavartkiladze, Zurab; /Oklahoma State U. /Tbilisi, Inst. Phys.
2011-06-28
We present a class of realistic unified models based on supersymmetric SO(10) wherein issues related to natural doublet-triplet (DT) splitting are fully resolved. Using a minimal set of low dimensional Higgs fields which includes a single adjoint, we show that the Dimopoulos-Wilzcek mechanism for DT splitting can be made stable in the presence of all higher order operators without having pseudo-Goldstone bosons and flat directions. The {mu} term of order TeV is found to be naturally induced. A Z{sub 2}-assisted anomalous U(1){sub A} gauge symmetry plays a crucial role in achieving these results. The threshold corrections to {alpha}{sub 3}(M{sub Z}), somewhat surprisingly, are found to be controlled by only a few effective parameters. This leads to a very predictive scenario for proton decay. As a novel feature, we find an interesting correlation between the d = 6 (p {yields} e{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}) and d = 5 (p {yields} {bar {nu}}K{sup +}) decay amplitudes which allows us to derive a constrained upper limit on the inverse rate of the e{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} mode. Our results show that both modes should be observed with an improvement in the current sensitivity by about a factor of five to ten.
Zero-dimensional model of a reversed field pinch fusion reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Veerasingam, R.
1987-12-01
A zero-dimensional model for the energy balance for electrons and ions of a Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) device has been developed. The model can be used as a tool for parametric studies and has been applied to simulate some ZT-40M experiments. In the model multiplicative coefficients C 1 , C 2 , C 3 and C 4 are introduced to treat anomalous resistivity, electron and ion energy confinement times and to account for the instability driven ion heating that is observed in RFP experiments. Parametric studies were performed to determine the sensitivity of the model to changes in multiplicative coefficients. A set of coefficients which can simulate a number of ZT-40M experiments have been obtained and the sensitivity of T/sub e/ and T/sub i/ to these coefficients was examined. Both flat top and ramp current waveforms were studied. The effects of different levels of impurities were also examined. The results showed that while all the three impurities used, viz., carbon, oxygen and nickel contributed to Z/sub eff/, nickel dominated the impurity radiation power. The results were then applied to study the behavior of the ZT-H device which is being built in the Confinement Physics Research Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. 30 refs., 39 figs., 12 tabs
Behaviour of Er/sup 3 +/ ion in tetragonal crystalline field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kumar, V; Dass, N; Chandra, K [Roorkee Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics
1976-12-01
Crystal field parameters for ErGaG and Er/sup 3 +/ YAlG are used to compute the temperature dependence of Schottky specific heat, paramagnetic susceptibility, magnetic anisotropy, sup(..mu..)eff and quadrupole splitting in the range 10-400 K. The hyperfine interaction parameters A and B for /sup 16/ /sup 166/Er and /sup 167/Er in both the systems are also obtained and in turn used to estimate the nuclear specific heat contribution. The studied parameters compare well with the available experimental results.
Microwave-optical double resonance spectroscopy. Progress report, February 1, 1975--January 31, 1976
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pratt, D.W.
1975-01-01
Zero-field and high-field optical detection of magnetic resonance (ODMR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and optical spectroscopy experiments were performed on several systems in order to further basic knowledge of the structure, reactions, and response to radiation of atoms, molecules, and ions. Results on the following studies are reported: the direct observation of level anticrossing and mixing effects in excited molecular triplet states; anomalous zero-field splittings in the lowest triplet state of 1-iodonaphthalene; evidence for second-order spin-orbit coupling and spin delocalization effects in the lowest triplet state of benzophenone; direct observation of the optical absorption spectra of reactive free radicals at room temperature; measurements of the activation and thermodynamic parameters of several cyclohexenyl and cyclohexanonyl radicals; complete analyses of the level anticrossing and cross relaxation spectra of oriented molecular triplet states; solutions to the spin Hamiltonian for S = 1, I = 5/2 systems in both zero-field and high-field, an improvement by a factor of ten in the resolution of ODMR experiments in high field; and measurements of the optical and magnetic resonance properties of a series of halogenated naphthalenes in their lowest triplet states
Majorana Zero Modes in Graphene
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. San-Jose
2015-12-01
Full Text Available A clear demonstration of topological superconductivity (TS and Majorana zero modes remains one of the major pending goals in the field of topological materials. One common strategy to generate TS is through the coupling of an s-wave superconductor to a helical half-metallic system. Numerous proposals for the latter have been put forward in the literature, most of them based on semiconductors or topological insulators with strong spin-orbit coupling. Here, we demonstrate an alternative approach for the creation of TS in graphene-superconductor junctions without the need for spin-orbit coupling. Our prediction stems from the helicity of graphene’s zero-Landau-level edge states in the presence of interactions and from the possibility, experimentally demonstrated, of tuning their magnetic properties with in-plane magnetic fields. We show how canted antiferromagnetic ordering in the graphene bulk close to neutrality induces TS along the junction and gives rise to isolated, topologically protected Majorana bound states at either end. We also discuss possible strategies to detect their presence in graphene Josephson junctions through Fraunhofer pattern anomalies and Andreev spectroscopy. The latter, in particular, exhibits strong unambiguous signatures of the presence of the Majorana states in the form of universal zero-bias anomalies. Remarkable progress has recently been reported in the fabrication of the proposed type of junctions, which offers a promising outlook for Majorana physics in graphene systems.
Rudin-Osher-Fatemi Total Variation Denoising using Split Bregman
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pascal Getreuer
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Denoising is the problem of removing noise from an image. The most commonly studied case is with additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN, where the observed noisy image f is related to the underlying true image u by f=u+η and η is at each point in space independently and identically distributed as a zero-mean Gaussian random variable. Total variation (TV regularization is a technique that was originally developed for AWGN image denoising by Rudin, Osher, and Fatemi. The TV regularization technique has since been applied to a multitude of other imaging problems, see for example Chan and Shen's book. We focus here on the split Bregman algorithm of Goldstein and Osher for TV-regularized denoising.
Klee, H. W.; McDowell, M. W.
1986-02-01
A new lens design concept, based on the use of a zero (or near zero) power corrector, will be described. The logical development of the design, based on the work of Schmidt', Houghton' and others will be discussed and examples will be given of moderate field of view lenses with apertures ranging from f/0.35 to f/2. It will also be shown that the lens configuration is relatively insensitive to the aperture stop location and that for less demanding applications only very basic optical glass types need be used.
Internal electric fields and color shift in Cr^{3+}-based gemstones
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aramburu, J. A.; Garcia-Fernandez, P.; García Lastra, Juan Maria
2012-01-01
to the polarization of the electronic cloud around chromium as a result of the C3 local symmetry. The present study also demonstrates that the variation of the ligand field splitting parameter, 10Dq, induced by the internal electric field comes mainly from the contributions of first shells of ions around the CrO69...
Zero-inflated Conway-Maxwell Poisson Distribution to Analyze Discrete Data.
Sim, Shin Zhu; Gupta, Ramesh C; Ong, Seng Huat
2018-01-09
In this paper, we study the zero-inflated Conway-Maxwell Poisson (ZICMP) distribution and develop a regression model. Score and likelihood ratio tests are also implemented for testing the inflation/deflation parameter. Simulation studies are carried out to examine the performance of these tests. A data example is presented to illustrate the concepts. In this example, the proposed model is compared to the well-known zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) and the zero- inflated generalized Poisson (ZIGP) regression models. It is shown that the fit by ZICMP is comparable or better than these models.
Anatomy of zero-norm states in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan, C.-T.; Lee, J.-C.; Yi Yang
2005-01-01
We calculate and identify the counterparts of zero-norm states in the old covariant first quantized (OCFQ) spectrum of open bosonic string in two other quantization schemes of string theory, namely, the light-cone Del Giudice-Di Vecchia-Fubine zero-norm states and the off-shell Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) zero-norm states (with ghost) in the Witten string field theory (WSFT). In particular, special attention is paid to the interparticle zero-norm states in all quantization schemes. For the case of the off-shell BRST zero-norm states, we impose the no-ghost conditions and recover exactly two types of on-shell zero-norm states in the OCFQ string spectrum for the first few low-lying mass levels. We then show that off-shell gauge transformations of WSFT are identical to the on-shell stringy gauge symmetries generated by two types of zero-norm states in the generalized massive σ-model approach of string theory. The high-energy limit of these stringy gauge symmetries was recently used to calculate the proportionality constants, conjectured by Gross, among high-energy scattering amplitudes of different string states. Based on these zero-norm state calculations, we have thus related gauge symmetry of WSFT to the high-energy stringy symmetry of Gross
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skalozub, V.V.
1990-12-01
A domain of the Higgs boson and t-quark masses m H , m t is derived by considering the requirements that the standard model must be consistent in a magnetic field. The restriction emerges naturally by studying the one-loop effective potential as a function of m H , m t and masses, when there is no zero-change in the fields H ∼ H 0 = M W 2 /e, are obtained. A bound from below on scalar particle masses m H > or approx. 124 GeV/c 2 , is also determined. (author). 14 refs, 6 figs
Adaptive sensorless field oriented control of PM motors including zero speed
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik; Vadstrup, P.; Børsting, H.
2004-01-01
This paper presents a simple control method for controlling permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) in a wide speed range without a shaft sensor. An adaptive observer is used for estimation of the rotor position and speed of a permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM). The observer compensates...... for voltage offsets and permanent magnet strength variations. The adaption structure for estimating the strength of the permanent magnet is determined from a Lyapunov stability proof. The control method is made robust at zero and low speed by changing the direct vector current component to a value different...... from zero. In order to verify the applicability of the method the controller has been implemented and tested on a 800 W motor....
Auroral-arc splitting by intrusion of a new convection channel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. U. Frey
Full Text Available During a run of the Common Programme Three of the EISCAT radar the splitting of an auroral arc was observed by high time-resolution, ground-based cameras when the UHF radar beam was close to the arc. The evening eastward electrojet situation with a large-scale northward ionospheric electric field was disturbed by the intrusion of a convection channel with southward electric field from the east. The interaction of the new convection channel with the auroral arc caused changes in arc brightness and arc splitting, i.e. the creation of a new arc parallel to the pre-existing auroral arc. The event is described as one possibility for the creation of parallel arcs during slightly disturbed magnetic conditions far from the Harang discontinuity.
Auroral-arc splitting by intrusion of a new convection channel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. U. Frey
1996-12-01
Full Text Available During a run of the Common Programme Three of the EISCAT radar the splitting of an auroral arc was observed by high time-resolution, ground-based cameras when the UHF radar beam was close to the arc. The evening eastward electrojet situation with a large-scale northward ionospheric electric field was disturbed by the intrusion of a convection channel with southward electric field from the east. The interaction of the new convection channel with the auroral arc caused changes in arc brightness and arc splitting, i.e. the creation of a new arc parallel to the pre-existing auroral arc. The event is described as one possibility for the creation of parallel arcs during slightly disturbed magnetic conditions far from the Harang discontinuity.
Spin-splitting in p-type Ge devices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Holmes, S. N., E-mail: s.holmes@crl.toshiba.co.uk; Newton, P. J.; Llandro, J.; Mansell, R.; Barnes, C. H. W. [Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Morrison, C.; Myronov, M. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)
2016-08-28
Compressively strained Ge quantum well devices have a spin-splitting in applied magnetic field that is entirely consistent with a Zeeman effect in the heavy hole valence band. The spin orientation is determined by the biaxial strain in the quantum well with the relaxed SiGe buffer layers and is quantized in the growth direction perpendicular to the conducting channel. The measured spin-splitting in the resistivity ρ{sub xx} agrees with the predictions of the Zeeman Hamiltonian where the Shubnikov-deHaas effect exhibits a loss of even filling factor minima in the resistivity ρ{sub xx} with hole depletion from a gate field, increasing disorder or increasing temperature. There is no measurable Rashba spin-orbit coupling irrespective of the structural inversion asymmetry of the confining potential in low p-doped or undoped Ge quantum wells from a density of 6 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −2} in depletion mode to 1.7 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −2} in enhancement.
Ultrasonic splitting of oil-in-water emulsions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hald, Jens; König, Ralf; Benes, Ewald
1999-01-01
Standing resonant ultrasonic wave fields can be utilized for liquid–liquid separation of the dispersed particles and the fluid caused by the acoustic radiation pressure and the induced particle agglomeration or coagulation/coalescence process. For the splitting of oil-in-water emulsions, the avai......Standing resonant ultrasonic wave fields can be utilized for liquid–liquid separation of the dispersed particles and the fluid caused by the acoustic radiation pressure and the induced particle agglomeration or coagulation/coalescence process. For the splitting of oil-in-water emulsions......, the available piezoelectric composite transducer technology was improved and a dedicated resonator with crossed plane wave sonication geometry has been developed. The resonator chamber is entirely made of aluminium or tempax glass and the PZT piezoceramic transducer delivers an acoustic energy flow density...... of up to 24 W/cm2 into the sonication volume. The chosen resonance frequency is kept stable by automatic frequency control utilizing the maximum true power criterion. Physically and chemically well-defined low and high density pure laboratory and also industrially used cooling-lubricating oil...
Modelling the ethanol-induced sleeping time in mice through a zero inflated model
FOGAP, Njinju Tongwa
2007-01-01
In the analysis of data in statistics, it is imperative to select most suitable models. Wrong choice of model selection leads to bias parameter estimates and standard errors. In the ethanol anesthesia data set used in this thesis, we observe more than expected zero counts, usually termed zero-inflation. Traditional application of Poisson and negative binomial distributions for model fitting may not be adequate due to the presence of excess zeros. This zero-inflation comes from two sources;...
Spin splitting in band structures of BiTeX (X=Cl, Br, I) monolayers
Hvazdouski, D. C.; Baranava, M. S.; Stempitsky, V. R.
2018-04-01
In systems with breaking of inversion symmetry a perpendicular electric field arises that interacts with the conduction electrons. It may give rise to electron state splitting even without influence of external magnetic field due to the spin-orbital interaction (SOI). Such a removal of the spin degeneracy is called the Rashba effect. Nanostructure with the Rashba effect can be part of a spin transistor. Spin degeneracy can be realized in a channel from a material of this type without additive of magnetic ions. Lack of additive increases the charge carrier mobility and reliability of the device. Ab initio simulations of BiTeX (X=Cl, Br, I) monolayers have been carried out using VASP wherein implemented DFT method. The study of this structures is of interest because such sort of structures can be used their as spin-orbitronics materials. The crystal parameters of BiTeCl, BiTeBr, BiTeI have been determined by the ionic relaxation and static calculations. It is necessary to note that splitting of energy bands occurs in case of SOI included. The values of the Rashba coefficient aR (in the range from 6.25 to 10.00 eV·Å) have high magnitudes for spintronics materials. Band structure of monolayers structures have ideal Rashba electron gas, i.e. there no other energy states near to Fermi level except Rashba states.
Splitting methods for split feasibility problems with application to Dantzig selectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He, Hongjin; Xu, Hong-Kun
2017-01-01
The split feasibility problem (SFP), which refers to the task of finding a point that belongs to a given nonempty, closed and convex set, and whose image under a bounded linear operator belongs to another given nonempty, closed and convex set, has promising applicability in modeling a wide range of inverse problems. Motivated by the increasingly data-driven regularization in the areas of signal/image processing and statistical learning, in this paper, we study the regularized split feasibility problem (RSFP), which provides a unified model for treating many real-world problems. By exploiting the split nature of the RSFP, we shall gainfully employ several efficient splitting methods to solve the model under consideration. A remarkable advantage of our methods lies in their easier subproblems in the sense that the resulting subproblems have closed-form representations or can be efficiently solved up to a high precision. As an interesting application, we apply the proposed algorithms for finding Dantzig selectors, in addition to demonstrating the effectiveness of the splitting methods through some computational results on synthetic and real medical data sets. (paper)
Theoretical statistics of zero-age cataclysmic variables
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Politano, M.J.
1988-01-01
The distribution of the white dwarf masses, the distribution of the mass ratios and the distribution of the orbital periods in cataclysmic variables which are forming at the present time are calculated. These systems are referred to as zero-age cataclysmic variables. The results show that 60% of the systems being formed contain helium white dwarfs and 40% contain carbon-oxygen white dwarfs. The mean dwarf mass in those systems containing helium white dwarfs is 0.34. The mean white dwarf mass in those systems containing carbon-oxygen white dwarfs is 0.75. The orbital period distribution identifies four main classes of zero-age cataclysmic variables: (1) short-period systems containing helium white dwarfs, (2) systems containing carbon-oxygen white dwarfs whose secondaries are convectively stable against rapid mass transfer to the white dwarf, (3) systems containing carbon-oxygen white dwarfs whose secondaries are radiatively stable against rapid mass transfer to the white dwarf and (4) long period systems with evolved secondaries. The white dwarf mass distribution in zero-age cataclysmic variables has direct application to the calculation of the frequency of outburst in classical novae as a function of the mass of the white dwarf. The method developed in this thesis to calculate the distributions of the orbital parameters in zero-age cataclysmic variables can be used to calculate theoretical statistics of any class of binary systems. This method provides a theoretical framework from which to investigate the statistical properties and the evolution of the orbital parameters of binary systems
Normal forms of Hopf-zero singularity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gazor, Majid; Mokhtari, Fahimeh
2015-01-01
The Lie algebra generated by Hopf-zero classical normal forms is decomposed into two versal Lie subalgebras. Some dynamical properties for each subalgebra are described; one is the set of all volume-preserving conservative systems while the other is the maximal Lie algebra of nonconservative systems. This introduces a unique conservative–nonconservative decomposition for the normal form systems. There exists a Lie-subalgebra that is Lie-isomorphic to a large family of vector fields with Bogdanov–Takens singularity. This gives rise to a conclusion that the local dynamics of formal Hopf-zero singularities is well-understood by the study of Bogdanov–Takens singularities. Despite this, the normal form computations of Bogdanov–Takens and Hopf-zero singularities are independent. Thus, by assuming a quadratic nonzero condition, complete results on the simplest Hopf-zero normal forms are obtained in terms of the conservative–nonconservative decomposition. Some practical formulas are derived and the results implemented using Maple. The method has been applied on the Rössler and Kuramoto–Sivashinsky equations to demonstrate the applicability of our results. (paper)
Normal forms of Hopf-zero singularity
Gazor, Majid; Mokhtari, Fahimeh
2015-01-01
The Lie algebra generated by Hopf-zero classical normal forms is decomposed into two versal Lie subalgebras. Some dynamical properties for each subalgebra are described; one is the set of all volume-preserving conservative systems while the other is the maximal Lie algebra of nonconservative systems. This introduces a unique conservative-nonconservative decomposition for the normal form systems. There exists a Lie-subalgebra that is Lie-isomorphic to a large family of vector fields with Bogdanov-Takens singularity. This gives rise to a conclusion that the local dynamics of formal Hopf-zero singularities is well-understood by the study of Bogdanov-Takens singularities. Despite this, the normal form computations of Bogdanov-Takens and Hopf-zero singularities are independent. Thus, by assuming a quadratic nonzero condition, complete results on the simplest Hopf-zero normal forms are obtained in terms of the conservative-nonconservative decomposition. Some practical formulas are derived and the results implemented using Maple. The method has been applied on the Rössler and Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equations to demonstrate the applicability of our results.
Mechano-chemical pathways to H2O and CO2 splitting
Vedadi, Mohammad H.; Haas, Stephan
2011-10-01
The shock-induced collapse of CO2-filled nanobubbles is investigated using molecular dynamics simulations based on a reactive force field. The energetic nanojet and high-pressure water hammer shock formed during and after collapse of the nanobubble trigger mechano-chemical H2O-CO2 reactions, some of which lead to splitting of water and formation of O2 molecules. The dominant pathways through which splitting of water molecules occur are identified.
Rotational perturbations of Friedmann universes in Einstein zero mass scalar theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krori, K.D.; Sarmah, J.C.; Goswami, D.
1983-01-01
The authors find that except in the case of 'perfect dragging', the zero mass scalar field has a damping effect on the rotation of matter. One of the three cases studied here shows that the scalar field may exist only during a certain interval in the course of the evolution of the universe. The zero mass scaler field has acquired particular importance recently because of a suggestion by Weinberg and Wilezek that there should exist a pseudo-scalar boson, the so-called axion, of negligible mass
Low-valent low-coordinated manganese(I) ion dimer: a temperature dependent W-band EPR study.
Sorace, Lorenzo; Golze, Christian; Gatteschi, Dante; Bencini, Alessandro; Roesky, Herbert W; Chai, Jianfang; Stückl, A Claudia
2006-01-09
W-Band EPR spectra of [[HC(CMeNAr)(2)]Mn](2) (Ar = 2,6-(i)Pr(2)C(6)H(3)) have been measured at different temperatures. The spectra show a behavior which is typical for an antiferromagnetically coupled dimer with excited states populating upon increasing temperature. By following the intensity variation of the different features of the spectra with temperature, we attributed different groups of resonances to the S = 1, 2, and 3 states of the dimer. Their corresponding spin Hamiltonian parameters were derived from simulations. The zero-field-splitting parameters measured in this way were D(S=1) = 1.57 cm(-1) and E(S=1) = 0.064 cm(-1), D(S=2) = 0.266 cm(-1) and E(S=2) = 0.0045 cm(-1), and D(S=3) = 0.075 cm(-1) and E(S=3) = 0. On the basis of the molecular structure of the system, we could estimate that zero-field splitting (ZFS) is the result of anisotropic exchange and single-ion anisotropic contributions of similar magnitude (|D| approximately 0.2 cm(-1)). These results allow a deeper insight into the electronic structure of the Mn(I) centers in low-coordination environments, further supporting the electronic structure of Mn(I) to be 4s(1)3d(5), as previously indicated by DFT calculations.
Fan, Non Q.; Clarke, John
1993-01-01
A spectrometer for measuring the nuclear quadrupole resonance spectra or the zero-field nuclear magnetic resonance spectra generated by a sample is disclosed. The spectrometer uses an amplifier having a dc SQUID operating in a flux-locked loop for generating an amplified output as a function of the intensity of the signal generated by the sample. The flux-locked loop circuit includes an integrator. The amplifier also includes means for preventing the integrator from being driven into saturation. As a result, the time for the flux-locked loop to recover from the excitation pulses generated by the spectrometer is reduced.
Coded Splitting Tree Protocols
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar
2013-01-01
This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... instance is terminated prematurely and subsequently iterated. The combined set of leaves from all the tree instances can then be viewed as a graph code, which is decodable using belief propagation. The main design problem is determining the order of splitting, which enables successful decoding as early...
Evaluation of the Effect of Split application of Urea on Nitrogen Losses in Furrow Fertigation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
farid feizolahpour
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Broadcast fertilization method increases fertilizer losses while results in lower nutrient absorption by plant roots. Fertigation is an effective method to increase water and fertilizer efficiency and to reduce the losses of nitrogen. Moreover, it allows farmers to apply the nutrients in splits and few amounts in response to crop needs. In the present study, a field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of split application of fertilizer in furrow fertigation on nitrogen losses and corn yield. Materials and Methods: Field experiments were carried out factorially in a randomized complete block design with four replicates. Experimental treatments were consisted of three fertilizer splits (two, three, and four splits and three levels of urea fertilizer (60, 80 and 100% of required urea fertilizer, which compared with the common method (broadcasting fertilizer as used by farmers in the fields. Experiments were conducted on a one hectare field in 120 meter long and open end furrows. During the crop season, Irrigation water was applied in the same way for all fertigation treatments and the third type of the WSC flumes was used to measure the amount of input and output water in irrigation events. Moreover, for determining the indexes of uniformity of water distribution in carrying out fertigation experiments, the amount of infiltration into the soil was calculated using the Kostiakov-Louis equation. The parameters of this equation were determined using the water volume balance method. Injection of Urea fertilizer was done by using 40-liter barrels were placed at the beginning of Furrows. In this study, the injection of fertilizers was applied in the last 10 to 20 minutes of irrigation time. Results and Discussions: Results showed that water distribution uniformities of low quarter and low half in all tests were very high. Such that the water low quarter distribution uniformities for all treatments were between 90.5 to 98
Automated cloud screening of AVHRR imagery using split-and-merge clustering
Gallaudet, Timothy C.; Simpson, James J.
1991-01-01
Previous methods to segment clouds from ocean in AVHRR imagery have shown varying degrees of success, with nighttime approaches being the most limited. An improved method of automatic image segmentation, the principal component transformation split-and-merge clustering (PCTSMC) algorithm, is presented and applied to cloud screening of both nighttime and daytime AVHRR data. The method combines spectral differencing, the principal component transformation, and split-and-merge clustering to sample objectively the natural classes in the data. This segmentation method is then augmented by supervised classification techniques to screen clouds from the imagery. Comparisons with other nighttime methods demonstrate its improved capability in this application. The sensitivity of the method to clustering parameters is presented; the results show that the method is insensitive to the split-and-merge thresholds.
Zero-voltage DC/DC converter with asymmetric pulse-width modulation for DC micro-grid system
Lin, Bor-Ren
2018-04-01
This paper presents a zero-voltage switching DC/DC converter for DC micro-grid system applications. The proposed circuit includes three half-bridge circuit cells connected in primary-series and secondary-parallel in order to lessen the voltage rating of power switches and current rating of rectifier diodes. Thus, low voltage stress of power MOSFETs can be adopted for high-voltage input applications with high switching frequency operation. In order to achieve low switching losses and high circuit efficiency, asymmetric pulse-width modulation is used to turn on power switches at zero voltage. Flying capacitors are used between each circuit cell to automatically balance input split voltages. Therefore, the voltage stress of each power switch is limited at Vin/3. Finally, a prototype is constructed and experiments are provided to demonstrate the circuit performance.
Artificial magnetic-field quenches in synthetic dimensions
Yılmaz, F.; Oktel, M. Ö.
2018-02-01
Recent cold atom experiments have realized models where each hyperfine state at an optical lattice site can be regarded as a separate site in a synthetic dimension. In such synthetic ribbon configurations, manipulation of the transitions between the hyperfine levels provide direct control of the hopping in the synthetic dimension. This effect was used to simulate a magnetic field through the ribbon. Precise control over the hopping matrix elements in the synthetic dimension makes it possible to change this artificial magnetic field much faster than the time scales associated with atomic motion in the lattice. In this paper, we consider such a magnetic-flux quench scenario in synthetic dimensions. Sudden changes have not been considered for real magnetic fields as such changes in a conducting system would result in large induced currents. Hence we first study the difference between a time varying real magnetic field and an artificial magnetic field using a minimal six-site model. This minimal model clearly shows the connection between gauge dependence and the lack of on-site induced scalar potential terms. We then investigate the dynamics of a wave packet in an infinite two- or three-leg ladder following a flux quench and find that the gauge choice has a dramatic effect on the packet dynamics. Specifically, a wave packet splits into a number of smaller packets moving with different velocities. Both the weights and the number of packets depend on the implemented gauge. If an initial packet, prepared under zero flux in an n -leg ladder, is quenched to Hamiltonian with a vector potential parallel to the ladder, it splits into at most n smaller wave packets. The same initial wave packet splits into up to n2 packets if the vector potential is implemented to be along the rungs. Even a trivial difference in the gauge choice such as the addition of a constant to the vector potential produces observable effects. We also calculate the packet weights for arbitrary initial and
Zero-One Law for Regular Languages and Semigroups with Zero
Sin'ya, Ryoma
2015-01-01
A regular language has the zero-one law if its asymptotic density converges to either zero or one. We prove that the class of all zero-one languages is closed under Boolean operations and quotients. Moreover, we prove that a regular language has the zero-one law if and only if its syntactic monoid has a zero element. Our proof gives both algebraic and automata characterisation of the zero-one law for regular languages, and it leads the following two corollaries: (i) There is an O(n log n) alg...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bin Fang
2016-12-01
Full Text Available We experimentally studied spin-transfer-torque induced magnetization oscillations in an asymmetric MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction device consisting of an in-plane magnetized free layer and an out-of-plane magnetized polarizer. A steady auto-oscillation was achieved at zero magnetic field and room temperature, with an oscillation frequency that was strongly dependent on bias currents, with a large frequency tunability of 1.39 GHz/mA. Our results suggest that this new structure has a high potential for new microwave device designs.
Lawrence, Jon; Yang, En-Che; Edwards, Rachel; Olmstead, Marilyn M; Ramsey, Chris; Dalal, Naresh S; Gantzel, Peter K; Hill, Stephen; Hendrickson, David N
2008-03-17
High-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (HFEPR) data are presented for four closely related tetranuclear Ni(II) complexes, [Ni(hmp)(MeOH)Cl]4.H2O (1a), [Ni(hmp)(MeOH)Br]4.H2O (1b), [Ni(hmp)(EtOH)Cl]4.H2O (2), and [Ni(hmp)(dmb)Cl]4 (3) (where hmp(-) is the anion of 2-hydroxymethylpyridine and dmb is 3,3'-dimethyl-1-butanol), which exhibit magnetic bistability (hysteresis) and fast magnetization tunneling at low temperatures, properties which suggest they are single-molecule magnets (SMMs). The HFEPR spectra confirm spin S = 4 ground states and dominant uniaxial anisotropy (DSz(2), D SMM. The individual fine structure peaks (due to zero-field splitting) for complexes 1a, 1b, and 2 are rather broad. They also exhibit further (significant) splitting, which can be explained by the fact that there exists two crystallographically distinct Ni 4 sites in the lattices for these complexes, with associated differences in metal-ligand bond lengths and different zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameters. The broad EPR lines, meanwhile, may be attributed to ligand and solvent disorder, which results in additional distributions of microenvironments. In the case of complex 3, there are no solvate molecules in the structure, and only one distinct Ni 4 molecule in the lattice. Consequently, the HFEPR data for complex 3 are extremely sharp. As the temperature of a crystal of complex 3 is decreased, the HFEPR spectrum splits abruptly at approximately 46 K into two patterns with very slightly different ZFS parameters. Heat capacity data suggest that this is caused by a structural transition at 46.6 K. A single-crystal X-ray structure at 12(2) K indicates large thermal parameters on the terminal methyl groups of the dmb (3,3-dimethyl-1-butanol) ligand. Most likely there exists dynamic disorder of parts of the dmb ligand above 46.6 K; an order-disorder structural phase transition at 46.6 K then removes some of the motion. A further decrease in temperature (<6 K) leads to further fine
Revisiting Boltzmann learning: parameter estimation in Markov random fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Lars Kai; Andersen, Lars Nonboe; Kjems, Ulrik
1996-01-01
This article presents a generalization of the Boltzmann machine that allows us to use the learning rule for a much wider class of maximum likelihood and maximum a posteriori problems, including both supervised and unsupervised learning. Furthermore, the approach allows us to discuss regularization...... and generalization in the context of Boltzmann machines. We provide an illustrative example concerning parameter estimation in an inhomogeneous Markov field. The regularized adaptation produces a parameter set that closely resembles the “teacher” parameters, hence, will produce segmentations that closely reproduce...
Zero-temperature renormalization of the 2D transverse Ising model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamieniarz, G.
1982-08-01
A zero-temperature real-space renormalization-group method is applied to the transverse Ising model on planar hexagonal, triangular and quadratic lattices. The critical fields and the critical exponents describing low-field large-field transition are calculated. (author)
Static Magnetic Field Therapy: A Critical Review of Treatment Parameters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Agatha P. Colbert
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Static magnetic field (SMF therapy, applied via a permanent magnet attached to the skin, is used by people worldwide for self-care. Despite a lack of established SMF dosage and treatment regimens, multiple studies are conducted to evaluate SMF therapy effectiveness. Our objectives in conducting this review are to: (i summarize SMF research conducted in humans; (ii critically evaluate reporting quality of SMF dosages and treatment parameters and (iii propose a set of criteria for reporting SMF treatment parameters in future clinical trials. We searched 27 electronic databases and reference lists. Only English language human studies were included. Excluded were studies of electromagnetic fields, transcranial magnetic stimulation, magnets placed on acupuncture points, animal studies, abstracts, posters and editorials. Data were extracted on clinical indication, study design and 10 essential SMF parameters. Three reviewers assessed quality of reporting and calculated a quality assessment score for each of the 10 treatment parameters. Fifty-six studies were reviewed, 42 conducted in patient populations and 14 in healthy volunteers. The SMF treatment parameters most often and most completely described were site of application, magnet support device and frequency and duration of application. Least often and least completely described were characteristics of the SMF: magnet dimensions, measured field strength and estimated distance of the magnet from the target tissue. Thirty-four (61% of studies failed to provide enough detail about SMF dosage to permit protocol replication by other investigators. Our findings highlight the need to optimize SMF dosing parameters for individual clinical conditions before proceeding to a full-scale clinical trial.
Cut-off parameters in the one-dimensional two-fermion model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Apostol, M.
1982-07-01
It is shown that the usual cut-off procedure (α cut-off parameter) employed in the boson representation of the fermion field opepators of the one-djmensional two-fermion model (TFM) is an incorrect one as the computator of the hermitean-conjugate field operators at the same space-point fails to fulfil a certain relationship which was pointed out long ago by Jordan. The complete form of the boson representation (including the zero-mode) of a single fermion field and the correct values of the cut-off parameter α is reviewed following Jordan and generalized to the TFM. The cut-off parameter α corresponds to a bandwidth cut-off and Jordan's boson representation is exact only in the limit α → 0. The additional zero-mode terms make the exact solution of the backscattering and umklapp scattering problem to be valid only if a supplementary condition is imposed on the coupling constants. Using the present bosonization technique all the inconsistencies of the TFM are removed. The one-particle Green's function and response functions of the Tomonaga-Luttinger model (TLM) are calculated and found to be identical with those obtained by direct diagram summation. The energy gap appearing in the spectrum of the TFM with backscattering and umklapp scattering for certain values of the coupling constants is shown to be proportional to the momentum transfer cut-off γ -1 which has to be kept finite while α goes to zero. Under such conditions the anticommunication relations and Jordan's commutator are invariant under the canonical transformation on the boson operators that diagonalizes the Hamiltonian of the TLM. The charge-density response function of the TFM with backscattering is perturbationally calculated up to the first order. The cut-off α -1 applies in the same way to terms which differ only by their spin indices in the expression of this response function. The charge-density response function is also evaluated at low frequencies for the exactly soluble TFM with
Predictive zero-dimensional combustion model for DI diesel engine feed-forward control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Catania, Andrea Emilio; Finesso, Roberto; Spessa, Ezio
2011-01-01
Highlights: → Zero-dimensional low-throughput combustion model for real-time control in diesel engine applications. → Feed-forward control of MFB50, p max and IMEP in both conventional and PCCI combustion modes. → Capability of resolving the contribution to HRR of each injection pulse in multiple injection schedule. → Ignition delay and model parameters estimated through physically consistent and easy-to-tune correlations. - Abstract: An innovative zero-dimensional predictive combustion model has been developed for the estimation of HRR (heat release rate) and in-cylinder pressure traces. This model has been assessed and applied to conventional and PCCI (premixed charge compression ignition) DI diesel engines for model-based feed-forward control purposes. The injection rate profile is calculated on the basis of the injected fuel quantities and on the injection parameters, such as SOI (start of injection), ET (energizing time), and DT (dwell time), taking the injector NOD (nozzle opening delay) and NCD (nozzle closure delay) into account. The injection rate profile in turn allows the released chemical energy Q ch to be estimated. The approach starts from the assumption that, at each time instant, the HRR is proportional to the energy associated with the accumulated fuel mass in the combustion chamber. The main novelties of the proposed approach consist of the method that is adopted to estimate the fuel ignition delay and of injection rate splitting for HRR estimation. The procedure allows an accurate calculation to be made of the different combustion parameters that are important for engine calibration, such as SOC (start of combustion) and MFB50 (50% of fuel mass fraction burned angle). On the basis of an estimation of the fuel released chemical energy, of the heat globally exchanged from the charge with the walls and of the energy associated with the fuel evaporation, the charge net energy is calculated, for a subsequent evaluation of the in
Zero Point Energy and the Dirac Equation
Forouzbakhsh, Farshid
2007-01-01
Zero Point Energy (ZPE) describes the random electromagnetic oscillations that are left in the vacuum after all other energy has been removed. One way to explain this is by means of the uncertainty principle of quantum physics, which implies that it is impossible to have a zero energy condition.I this article, the ZPE is explained by using a novel description of the graviton. This is based on the behavior of photons in gravitational field, leading to a new definition of the graviton. In effec...
Solar Water Splitting Using Semiconductor Photocatalyst Powders
Takanabe, Kazuhiro
2015-07-01
Solar energy conversion is essential to address the gap between energy production and increasing demand. Large scale energy generation from solar energy can only be achieved through equally large scale collection of the solar spectrum. Overall water splitting using heterogeneous photocatalysts with a single semiconductor enables the direct generation of H from photoreactors and is one of the most economical technologies for large-scale production of solar fuels. Efficient photocatalyst materials are essential to make this process feasible for future technologies. To achieve efficient photocatalysis for overall water splitting, all of the parameters involved at different time scales should be improved because the overall efficiency is obtained by the multiplication of all these fundamental efficiencies. Accumulation of knowledge ranging from solid-state physics to electrochemistry and a multidisciplinary approach to conduct various measurements are inevitable to be able to understand photocatalysis fully and to improve its efficiency.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chemin, J.F.; Andriamonje, S.; Guezet, D.; Thibaud, J.P.; Aguer, P.; Hannachi, F.; Bruandet, J.F.
1984-01-01
We have measured, for the first time, the ionization probability Psub(1s sigma) of the 1s sigma molecular orbital in the way into a nuclear reaction (in half a collision at zero impact parameter) in a near symmetric collision 58 Ni + 54 Fe at 230 MeV leads to a compound nucleus of 112 Xe highly excited which decays first by sequential emission of charged particles and then by sequential emission of gamma rays. The determination of Psub(1s sigma) is based on the coincidence measurement between X-rays and γ-rays and the Doppler shift method is used to discrimine the ''atomic'' and ''nuclear'' X-rays
Spin-dependent tunneling conductance in 2D structures in zero magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rozhansky, I.V.; Averkiev, N.S.
2009-01-01
The influence of the spin-orbit interaction on the tunneling between two-dimensional electron layers is considered. A general expression for the tunneling current is obtained with the Rashba and Dresselhaus effects and also elastic scattering of charge carriers on impurities taken into account. It is shown that the particular form of the tunneling conductance as a function of the voltage between layers is extremely sensitive to the relationship between the Rashba and Dresselhaus parameters. This makes it possible to determine the parameters of the spin-orbit interaction and the quantum scattering time directly from measurements of the tunneling conductance in the absence of magnetic field
Uchiyama, T
1974-01-01
Rigorous lower bounds are derived from axiomatic field theory, by invoking analyticity and unitarity of the S-matrix. The bounds are expressed in terms of the total cross section and the slope parameter, and are found to be compatible with CERN experimental pp scattering data. It is also shown that the calculated lower-bound values imply non-existence of zeros for -t
Gate-tunable current partition in graphene-based topological zero lines
Wang, Ke; Ren, Yafei; Deng, Xinzhou; Yang, Shengyuan A.; Jung, Jeil; Qiao, Zhenhua
2017-06-01
We demonstrate new mechanisms for gate-tunable current partition at topological zero-line intersections in a graphene-based current splitter. Based on numerical calculations of the nonequilibrium Green's functions and Landauer-Büttiker formula, we show that the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field on the order of a few Teslas allows for carrier sign dependent current routing. In the zero-field limit the control on current routing and partition can be achieved within a range of 10-90 % of the total incoming current by tuning the carrier density at tilted intersections or by modifying the relative magnitude of the bulk band gaps via gate voltage. We discuss the implications of our findings in the design of topological zero-line networks where finite orbital magnetic moments are expected when the current partition is asymmetric.
Partition function zeros for the one-dimensional ordered plasma in Dirichlet boundary conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roumeliotis, J.; Smith, E.R.
1992-01-01
The authors consider the grand canonical partition function for the ordered one-dimensional, two-component plasma at fugacity ζ in an applied electric field E with Dirichlet boundary conditions. The system has a phase transition from a low-coupling phase with equally spaced particles to a high-coupling phase with particles clustered into dipolar pairs. An exact expression for the partition function is developed. In zero applied field the zeros in the ζ plane occupy the imaginary axis from -i∞ to -iζ c and iζ c to i∞ for some ζ c . They also occupy the diamond shape of four straight lines from ±iζ c to ζ c and from ±iζ c to -ζ c . The fugacity ζ acts like a temperature or coupling variable. The symmetry-breaking field is the applied electric field E. A finite-size scaling representation for the partition in scaled coupling and scaled electric field is developed. It has standard mean field form. When the scaled coupling is real, the zeros in the scaled field lie on the imaginary axis and pinch the real scaled field axis as the scaled coupling increases. The scaled partition function considered as a function of two complex variables, scaled coupling and scaled field, has zeros on a two-dimensional surface in a domain of four real variables. A numerical discussion of some of the properties of this surface is presented
AN ARECIBO SURVEY FOR ZEEMAN SPLITTING IN OH MEGAMASER GALAXIES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McBride, James; Heiles, Carl
2013-01-01
We present the results of a comprehensive survey using the Arecibo Observatory for Zeeman splitting of OH lines in OH megamasers (OHMs). A total of 77 sources were observed with the Arecibo telescope. Of these, maser emission could not be detected for eight sources, and two sources were only ambiguously detected. Another 27 sources were detected at low signal-to-noise ratios or with interference that prevented placing any useful limits on the presence of magnetic fields. In 26 sources, it was possible to place upper limits on the magnitude of magnetic fields, typically between 10 and 30 mG. For 14 sources, the Stokes V spectra exhibit features consistent with Zeeman splitting. Eleven of these 14 are new detections, and the remaining three are re-detections of Stokes V detections in Robishaw et al. Among confident new detections, we derive magnetic fields associated with maser regions with magnitudes ranging from 6.1 to 27.6 mG. The distribution of magnetic field strengths suggests the magnetic fields in OH masing clouds in OHMs are larger than those in Galactic OH masers. The results are consistent with magnetic fields playing a dynamically important role in OH masing clouds in OHMs.
Shield Optimization and Formulation of Regression Equations for Split-Ring Resonator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tahir Ejaz
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Microwave resonators are widely used for numerous applications including communication, biomedical and chemical applications, material testing, and food grading. Split-ring resonators in both planar and nonplanar forms are a simple structure which has been in use for several decades. This type of resonator is characterized with low cost, ease of fabrication, moderate quality factor, low external noise interference, high stability, and so forth. Due to these attractive features and ease in handling, nonplanar form of structure has been utilized for material characterization in 1–5 GHz range. Resonant frequency and quality factor are two important parameters for determination of material properties utilizing perturbation theory. Shield made of conducting material is utilized to enclose split-ring resonator which enhances quality factor. This work presents a novel technique to develop shield around a predesigned nonplanar split-ring resonator to yield optimized quality factor. Based on this technique and statistical analysis regression equations have also been formulated for resonant frequency and quality factor which is a major outcome of this work. These equations quantify dependence of output parameters on various factors of shield made of different materials. Such analysis is instrumental in development of devices/designs where improved/optimum result is required.
Study of a zero Poisson’s ratio honeycomb used for flexible skin
Rong, Jiaxin; Zhou, Li
2017-04-01
Flexible skin used in morphing wings is required to provide adequate cooperation deformation as well as bear the air load. Besides, according to the requirement of smoothness, the non-deformation direction of flexible skin needs to be restrained. This paper studies the mechanical properties of a cruciform honeycomb under a zero Poisson’s ratio constraint. The in-plane morphing capacity of the honeycomb is improved by optimizing the shape parameters of the honeycomb unit. To improve the out-of-plane bending capacity, a zero Poisson’s ratio mixed cruciform honeycomb with additional ribs is proposed. The mechanical properties of the mixed honeycomb are studied by theoretical analysis and simulation. Based on the design requirements of variable-camber trailing-edge flexible skin, the specific design parameters and performance parameters of the skin based on the mixed honeycomb are given. The results show that the zero Poisson’s ratio mixed cruciform honeycomb has high bending rigidity itself and can have better deformation capacity in-plane and higher bending rigidity out-of-plane by optimizing the shape parameters. The designed skin also has advantages in driving force, deformation capacity and quality over conventional skin.
Finite spatial volume approach to finite temperature field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weiss, Nathan
1981-01-01
A relativistic quantum field theory at finite temperature T=β -1 is equivalent to the same field theory at zero temperature but with one spatial dimension of finite length β. This equivalence is discussed for scalars, for fermions, and for gauge theories. The relationship is checked for free field theory. The translation of correlation functions between the two formulations is described with special emphasis on the nonlocal order parameters of gauge theories. Possible applications are mentioned. (auth)
Energy and contact of the one-dimensional Fermi polaron at zero and finite temperature.
Doggen, E V H; Kinnunen, J J
2013-07-12
We use the T-matrix approach for studying highly polarized homogeneous Fermi gases in one dimension with repulsive or attractive contact interactions. Using this approach, we compute ground state energies and values for the contact parameter that show excellent agreement with exact and other numerical methods at zero temperature, even in the strongly interacting regime. Furthermore, we derive an exact expression for the value of the contact parameter in one dimension at zero temperature. The model is then extended and used for studying the temperature dependence of ground state energies and the contact parameter.
Kelly, Priscilla; Kuznetsova, Lyuba
2018-04-01
A numerical study of the ultra-short pulse propagation in the aluminum-doped zinc oxide multi-layered metamaterial at the epsilon-near-zero spectral point is presented. The Drude model for dielectric permittivity and comparison with recent experimental data predict that damping frequency γD has the highest impact on the material losses and results in enormous second-order dispersion. Numerical simulations using both, the finite-difference time domain algorithm and the split-step Fourier method, show that variations of group velocity across the pulse at the epsilon-near-zero point results in a unique "soliton-like" propagation regime without nonlinearity for the propagation lengths of up to 300 nm.
Splitting in large dimension and infrared estimates. II. Moment inequalities
Helffer, B.
1998-02-01
This is the continuation of notes written for the NATO-ASI conference in Il Ciocco (September 96) consisting of the analysis of the links between estimating the splitting between the two first eigenvalues for the Schrödinger operator H and the proof of infrared estimates for quantities attached to Gaussian-type measures. These notes were mainly reporting on the "old" contributions of Dyson, Fröhlich, Glimm, Jaffe, Lieb, Simon, and Spencer (in the 1970s) in connection with more recent contributions of Pastur, Khoruzhenko, Barbulyak, and Kondrat'ev which treat in general more sophisticated models. Here we concentrate on the simplest model related to field theory and extend the results of Barbulyak and Kondrat'ev by mixing ideas coming from Pastur and Khozurenko related to the use of Bogolyubov's inequality with classical inequalities due to Ginibre, Lebowitz, Sokal, and others, or, in the case when the temperature T is zero, by applying rather elementary estimates on Schrödinger operators, in order to find lower bounds for second-order moments attached to the measure φ⟼Trφ exp-βH/Tr exp-βH with β=1/T. This question was "left to the reader" in lectures given by J. Fröhlich in 1976 [Acta Phys. Austriaca, Suppl. XV, 133-269 (1976)], but we think that it is worthwhile to do this "homework" carefully.
Light Modulation and Water Splitting Enhancement Using a Composite Porous GaN Structure.
Yang, Chao; Xi, Xin; Yu, Zhiguo; Cao, Haicheng; Li, Jing; Lin, Shan; Ma, Zhanhong; Zhao, Lixia
2018-02-14
On the basis of the laterally porous GaN, we designed and fabricated a composite porous GaN structure with both well-ordered lateral and vertical holes. Compared to the plane GaN, the composite porous GaN structure with the combination of the vertical holes can help to reduce UV reflectance and increase the saturation photocurrent during water splitting by a factor of ∼4.5. Furthermore, we investigated the underlying mechanism for the enhancement of the water splitting performance using a finite-difference time-domain method. The results show that the well-ordered vertical holes can not only help to open the embedded pore channels to the electrolyte at both sides and reduce the migration distance of the gas bubbles during the water splitting reactions but also help to modulate the light field. Using this composite porous GaN structure, most of the incident light can be modulated and trapped into the nanoholes, and thus the electric fields localized in the lateral pores can increase dramatically as a result of the strong optical coupling. Our findings pave a new way to develop GaN photoelectrodes for highly efficient solar water splitting.
Multiparty hierarchical quantum-information splitting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Xinwen; Zhang Dengyu; Tang Shiqing; Xie Lijun
2011-01-01
We propose a scheme for multiparty hierarchical quantum-information splitting (QIS) with a multipartite entangled state, where a boss distributes a secret quantum state to two grades of agents asymmetrically. The agents who belong to different grades have different authorities for recovering the boss's secret. Except for the boss's Bell-state measurement, no nonlocal operation is involved. The presented scheme is also shown to be secure against eavesdropping. Such a hierarchical QIS is expected to find useful applications in the field of modern multipartite quantum cryptography.
High Field Magnetization of Tb Single Crystals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Roeland, L. W.; Cock, G. J.; Lindgård, Per-Anker
1975-01-01
Hamiltonian including isotropic exchange interactions, effective single-ion anisotropy and magnetoelastic contributions. The parameters of this Hamiltonian were determined by fitting the theoretical results for the spin wave dispersion and energy gap as a function of temperature and magnetic field to existing...... data on Tb. The conduction-electron polarization at zero field and temperature is (0.33+or-0.05) mu B/ion, and the susceptibility is greater than the Pauli susceptibility calculated from the band-structure....
A comparison of zero-order, first-order, and Monod biotransformation models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bekins, B.A.; Warren, E.; Godsy, E.M.
1998-01-01
Under some conditions, a first-order kinetic model is a poor representation of biodegradation in contaminated aquifers. Although it is well known that the assumption of first-order kinetics is valid only when substrate concentration, S, is much less than the half-saturation constant, K S , this assumption is often made without verification of this condition. The authors present a formal error analysis showing that the relative error in the first-order approximation is S/K S and in the zero-order approximation the error is K S /S. They then examine the problems that arise when the first-order approximation is used outside the range for which it is valid. A series of numerical simulations comparing results of first- and zero-order rate approximations to Monod kinetics for a real data set illustrates that if concentrations observed in the field are higher than K S , it may be better to model degradation using a zero-order rate expression. Compared with Monod kinetics, extrapolation of a first-order rate to lower concentrations under-predicts the biotransformation potential, while extrapolation to higher concentrations may grossly over-predict the transformation rate. A summary of solubilities and Monod parameters for aerobic benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) degradation shows that the a priori assumption of first-order degradation kinetics at sites contaminated with these compounds is not valid. In particular, out of six published values of K S for toluene, only one is greater than 2 mg/L, indicating that when toluene is present in concentrations greater than about a part per million, the assumption of first-order kinetics may be invalid. Finally, the authors apply an existing analytical solution for steady-state one-dimensional advective transport with Monod degradation kinetics to a field data set
Entropy Analysis of Solar Two-Step Thermochemical Cycles for Water and Carbon Dioxide Splitting
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matthias Lange
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The present study provides a thermodynamic analysis of solar thermochemical cycles for splitting of H2O or CO2. Such cycles, powered by concentrated solar energy, have the potential to produce fuels in a sustainable way. We extend a previous study on the thermodynamics of water splitting by also taking into account CO2 splitting and the influence of the solar absorption efficiency. Based on this purely thermodynamic approach, efficiency trends are discussed. The comprehensive and vivid representation in T-S diagrams provides researchers in this field with the required theoretical background to improve process development. Furthermore, results about the required entropy change in the used redox materials can be used as a guideline for material developers. The results show that CO2 splitting is advantageous at higher temperature levels, while water splitting is more feasible at lower temperature levels, as it benefits from a great entropy change during the splitting step.
Zero-point energy in early quantum theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milonni, P.W.; Shih, M.-L.
1991-01-01
In modern physics the vacuum is not a tranquil void but a quantum state with fluctuations having observable consequences. The present concept of the vacuum has its roots in the zero-point energy of harmonic oscillators and the electromagnetic field, and arose before the development of the formalism of quantum mechanics. This article discusses these roots in the blackbody research of Planck and Einstein in 1912--1913, and the relation to Bose--Einstein statistics and the first indication of wave--particle duality uncovered by Einstein's fluctuation formula. Also considered are the Einstein--Stern theory of specific heats, which invoked zero-point energy in a way which turned out to be incorrect, and the experimental implications of zero-point energy recognized by Mulliken and Debye in vibrational spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takahashi, K., E-mail: t2216017@iwate-u.ac.jp [Department of Physical Science and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Ainslie, M.D. [Bulk Superconductivity Group, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Fujishiro, H.; Naito, T. [Department of Physical Science and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Shi, Y-H.; Cardwell, D.A. [Bulk Superconductivity Group, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)
2017-05-15
Highlights: • The trapped field characteristics of a standard Y–Ba–Cu–O bulk magnetized by PFM was investigated using a split coil with three kinds of iron yokes inserted in the bores of coil,both experimentally and numerically. • Numerical results encourage better understanding of the role of yoke, including the typical behavior of the magnetic flux, such as a flux jump during PFM. • A higher saturation magnetic flux density of the yoke material was effective to reduce flux flow in the descending stage of the pulsed field. • A conductivity of the yoke material also acts to reduce the velocity of the flux intruding the bulk because of eddy currents that flow in the yoke that oppose the magnetization, which reduces the temperature rise in the bulk. - Abstract: We have investigated, both experimentally and numerically, the trapped field characteristics of a standard Y–Ba–Cu–O bulk of 30 mm in diameter and 14 mm in thickness magnetized by pulsed field magnetization (PFM) using a split coil, in which three kinds of iron yoke are inserted in the bore of the coil: soft iron with a flat surface, soft iron with a taper, and permendur (50Fe + 50Co alloy) with a flat surface. The highest trapped field, B{sub Tmax}, of 2.93 T was achieved at 40 K in the case of the permendur yoke, which was slightly higher than that obtained for the flat soft iron or the tapered soft iron yokes, and was much higher than 2.20 T in the case without the yoke. The insertion effect of the yoke on the trapped field characteristics was also investigated using numerical simulations. The results suggest that the saturation magnetic flux density, B{sub sat}, of the yoke acts to reduce the flux flow due to its hysteretic magnetization curve and the higher electrical conductivity, σ, of the yoke material also acts to suppress the flux increase rate. A flux jump (or flux leap) can be reproduced in the ascending stage of PFM using numerical simulation, using an assumption of relatively
Luminescence of Mn{sup 4+} in the orthorhombic perovskite, LaGaO{sub 3}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Srivastava, A.M., E-mail: srivastava@ge.com [GE Global Research, One Research Circle, Niskayuna, New York 12309 (United States); Camardello, S.J. [GE Global Research, One Research Circle, Niskayuna, New York 12309 (United States); Brik, M.G. [College of Sciences, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China); Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14C, Tartu 50411 (Estonia); Institute of Physics, Jan Dlugosz University, PL-42200 Czestochowa (Poland)
2017-03-15
The optical properties of Mn{sup 4+} (3d{sup 3}) in the orthorhombic perovskite, LaGaO{sub 3} are investigated. The Mn{sup 4+} energy levels are calculated using the exchange charge model of crystal-field theory. The calculated Mn{sup 4+} energy levels are in good agreement with the experimental spectroscopic data. The results of our calculations yield the crystal-field splitting and Racah parameters of Dq=1926 cm{sup −1}, B=780 cm{sup −1} and C=2878 cm{sup −1}, with C/B=3.7. The emission spectrum is assigned on the basis of the zero phonon line corresponding to the {sup 2}E{sub g}→{sup 4}A{sub 2g} transition and its vibrational sidebands. A comparative study of the variation in the crystal-field splitting and the Mn{sup 4+} {sup 2}E{sub g} energy level position in materials with the perovskite structure is also presented.
Shear-Wave Splitting and Crustal Anisotropy in the Shillong-Mikir Plateau of Northeast India
Bora, Dipok K.; Hazarika, Devajit; Paul, Arpita; Borah, Kajaljyoti; Borgohain, Jayanta Madhab
2018-01-01
Seismic anisotropy of crust beneath the Shillong-Mikir Plateau and the surrounding regions of northeast India have been investigated with the help of splitting analysis of S-wave of local earthquakes. We estimate a total 83 pairs of splitting parameters ( Φ and δt) from 67 local shallow focus earthquakes (depth ≤ 32 km) recorded by the 10 broadband seismological stations operated in the study region. The results show delay times ranging from 0.02 to 0.2 s, which correspond to anisotropy up to 4%, suggesting significant strength of anisotropy in the study region. Fast polarization direction ( Φ) in the Shillong Plateau shows mostly NW-SE trend in the western part and NE-SW trend in the northern part. Φs near Kopili fault (KF) follows NW-SE trend. Φ at most of the stations in the study region is consistent with the local stress orientation, suggesting that the anisotropy is mainly caused by preferentially aligned cracks responding to the stress field. On the other hand, anisotropy observed near the KF is due to aligned macroscopic fracture related to strike-slip movement in the fault zone.
Majorana zero modes in Dirac semimetal Josephson junctions
Li, Chuan; de Boer, Jorrit; de Ronde, Bob; Huang, Yingkai; Golden, Mark; Brinkman, Alexander
We have realized proximity-induced superconductivity in a Dirac semimetal and revealed the topological nature of the superconductivity by the observation of Majorana zero modes. As a Dirac semimetal, Bi0.97Sb0.03 is used, where a three-dimensional Dirac cone exists in the bulk due to an accidental touching between conduction and valence bands. Electronic transport measurements on Hall-bars fabricated out of Bi0.97Sb0.03 flakes consistently show negative magnetoresistance for magnetic fields parallel to the current, which is associated with the chiral anomaly. In perpendicular magnetic fields, we see Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations that indicate very low carrier densities. The low Fermi energy and protection against backscattering in our Dirac semimetal Josephson junctions provide favorable conditions for a large contribution of Majorana zero modes to the supercurrent. In radiofrequency irradiation experiments, we indeed observe these Majorana zero modes in Nb-Bi0.97Sb0.03-Nb Josephson junctions as a 4 π periodic contribution to the current-phase relation.
Design characteristics of zero power fast reactor Lasta
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milosevic, M.; Stefanovic, D.; Pesic, M.; Popovic, D.; Nikolic, D.; Antic, D.; Zavaljevski, N.
1987-01-01
The concept, purpose and preliminary design of a zero power fast reactor LASTA are described. The methods of computing the reactor core parameters and reactor kinetics are presented with the basic calculated results and analysis for one selected LASTA configuration. The nominal parameters are determined according to the selected reactor safety criteria and results of calculations. Important aspects related to the overall safety are examined in detail. (author)
The Split-Brain Phenomenon Revisited: A Single Conscious Agent with Split Perception.
Pinto, Yair; de Haan, Edward H F; Lamme, Victor A F
2017-11-01
The split-brain phenomenon is caused by the surgical severing of the corpus callosum, the main route of communication between the cerebral hemispheres. The classical view of this syndrome asserts that conscious unity is abolished. The left hemisphere consciously experiences and functions independently of the right hemisphere. This view is a cornerstone of current consciousness research. In this review, we first discuss the evidence for the classical view. We then propose an alternative, the 'conscious unity, split perception' model. This model asserts that a split brain produces one conscious agent who experiences two parallel, unintegrated streams of information. In addition to changing our view of the split-brain phenomenon, this new model also poses a serious challenge for current dominant theories of consciousness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A unified model of quarks and leptons with a universal texture zero
de Medeiros Varzielas, Ivo; Ross, Graham G.; Talbert, Jim
2018-03-01
We show that a universal texture zero in the (1,1) position of all fermionic mass matrices, including heavy right-handed Majorana neutrinos driving a type-I see-saw mechanism, can lead to a viable spectrum of mass, mixing and CP violation for both quarks and leptons, including (but not limited to) three important postdictions: the Cabibbo angle, the charged lepton masses, and the leptonic `reactor' angle. We model this texture zero with a non-Abelian discrete family symmetry that can easily be embedded in a grand unified framework, and discuss the details of the phenomenology after electroweak and family symmetry breaking. We provide an explicit numerical fit to the available data and obtain excellent agreement with the 18 observables in the charged fermion and neutrino sectors with just 9 free parameters. We further show that the vacua of our new scalar familon fields are readily aligned along desired directions in family space, and also demonstrate discrete gauge anomaly freedom at the relevant scale of our effective theory.
Taylor-Couette flow stability with toroidal magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shalybkov, D
2005-01-01
The linear stability of the dissipative Taylor-Couette flow with imposed azimuthal magnetic field is considered. Unlike to ideal flow, the magnetic field is fixed function of radius with two parameters only: a ratio of inner to outer cylinder radii and a ratio of the magnetic field values on outer and inner cylinders. The magnetic field with boundary values ratio greater than zero and smaller than inverse radii ratio always stabilizes the flow and called stable magnetic field below. The current free magnetic field is the stable magnetic field. The unstable magnetic field destabilizes every flow if the magnetic field (or Hartmann number) exceeds some critical value. This instability survives even without rotation (for zero Reynolds number). For the stable without the magnetic field flow, the unstable modes are located into some interval of the vertical wave numbers. The interval length is zero for critical Hartmann number and increases with increasing Hartmann number. The critical Hartmann numbers and the length of the unstable vertical wave numbers interval is the same for every rotation law. There are the critical Hartmann numbers for m = 0 sausage and m = 1 kink modes only. The critical Hartmann numbers are smaller for kink mode and this mode is the most unstable mode like to the pinch instability case. The flow stability do not depend on the magnetic Prandtl number for m = 0 mode. The same is true for critical Hartmann numbers for m = 0 and m = 1 modes. The typical value of the magnetic field destabilizing the liquid metal Taylor-Couette flow is order of 100 Gauss
Fang, Yiqi; Lu, Qinghong; Wang, Xiaolei; Zhang, Wuhong; Chen, Lixiang
2017-02-01
The study of vortex dynamics is of fundamental importance in understanding the structured light's propagation behavior in the realm of singular optics. Here, combining with the large-angle holographic lithography in photoresist, a simple experiment to trace and visualize the vortex birth and splitting of light fields induced by various fractional topological charges is reported. For a topological charge M =1.76 , the recorded microstructures reveal that although it finally leads to the formation of a pair of fork gratings, these two vortices evolve asynchronously. More interestingly, it is observed on the submicron scale that high-order topological charges M =3.48 and 3.52, respectively, give rise to three and four characteristic forks embedded in the samples with one-wavelength resolution of about 450 nm. Numerical simulations based on orbital angular momentum eigenmode decomposition support well the experimental observations. Our method could be applied effectively to study other structured matter waves, such as the electron and neutron beams.
Complex zeros of the partition function of the Q-state Potts model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghulghazaryan, R.G.
2002-01-01
Using the dynamical systems theory, the Yang-Lee and Potts zeros of the one-dimensional Q-state Potts model are investigated for Q>0. It is shown that in the one-dimensional case the phase transition points on the complex plane may be found from the condition of existence of neutral fixed points. Densities of the Yang-Lee and Potts zeros and corresponding critical exponents are found. The Yang-Lee and Potts zeros are classified depending on the parameters of the model
Quantum entanglement in non-local games, graph parameters and zero-error information theory
Scarpa, G.
2013-01-01
We study quantum entanglement and some of its applications in graph theory and zero-error information theory. In Chapter 1 we introduce entanglement and other fundamental concepts of quantum theory. In Chapter 2 we address the question of how much quantum correlations generated by entanglement can
Zero-point length from string fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fontanini, Michele; Spallucci, Euro; Padmanabhan, T.
2006-01-01
One of the leading candidates for quantum gravity, viz. string theory, has the following features incorporated in it. (i) The full spacetime is higher-dimensional, with (possibly) compact extra-dimensions; (ii) there is a natural minimal length below which the concept of continuum spacetime needs to be modified by some deeper concept. On the other hand, the existence of a minimal length (zero-point length) in four-dimensional spacetime, with obvious implications as UV regulator, has been often conjectured as a natural aftermath of any correct quantum theory of gravity. We show that one can incorporate the apparently unrelated pieces of information-zero-point length, extra-dimensions, string T-duality-in a consistent framework. This is done in terms of a modified Kaluza-Klein theory that interpolates between (high-energy) string theory and (low-energy) quantum field theory. In this model, the zero-point length in four dimensions is a 'virtual memory' of the length scale of compact extra-dimensions. Such a scale turns out to be determined by T-duality inherited from the underlying fundamental string theory. From a low energy perspective short distance infinities are cutoff by a minimal length which is proportional to the square root of the string slope, i.e., α ' . Thus, we bridge the gap between the string theory domain and the low energy arena of point-particle quantum field theory
Vibrational zero point energy for H-doped silicon
Karazhanov, S. Zh.; Ganchenkova, M.; Marstein, E. S.
2014-05-01
Most of the studies addressed to computations of hydrogen parameters in semiconductor systems, such as silicon, are performed at zero temperature T = 0 K and do not account for contribution of vibrational zero point energy (ZPE). For light weight atoms such as hydrogen (H), however, magnitude of this parameter might be not negligible. This Letter is devoted to clarify the importance of accounting the zero-point vibrations when analyzing hydrogen behavior in silicon and its effect on silicon electronic properties. For this, we estimate the ZPE for different locations and charge states of H in Si. We show that the main contribution to the ZPE is coming from vibrations along the Si-H bonds whereas contributions from other Si atoms apart from the direct Si-H bonds play no role. It is demonstrated that accounting the ZPE reduces the hydrogen formation energy by ˜0.17 eV meaning that neglecting ZPE at low temperatures one can underestimate hydrogen solubility by few orders of magnitude. In contrast, the effect of the ZPE on the ionization energy of H in Si is negligible. The results can have important implications for characterization of vibrational properties of Si by inelastic neutron scattering, as well as for theoretical estimations of H concentration in Si.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alvi, N. H., E-mail: nhalvi@isom.upm.es, E-mail: r.noetzel@isom.upm.es; Soto Rodriguez, P. E. D.; Kumar, Praveen; Gómez, V. J.; Aseev, P.; Nötzel, R., E-mail: nhalvi@isom.upm.es, E-mail: r.noetzel@isom.upm.es [ISOM Institute for Systems Based on Optoelectronics and Microtechnology, ETSI Telecomunicación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Alvi, A. H. [Department of Physics, Government College University, Faisalabad (Pakistan); Alvi, M. A. [Department of Chemistry, Government College University, Faisalabad (Pakistan); Willander, M. [Department of Science and Technology (ITN), Campus Norrköping, Linköping University, 60174 Norrköping (Sweden)
2014-06-02
We investigate photoelectrochemical water splitting by a spontaneously formed In-rich InGaN nanowall network, combining the material of choice with the advantages of surface texturing for light harvesting by light scattering. The current density for the InGaN-nanowalls-photoelectrode at zero voltage versus the Ag/AgCl reference electrode is 3.4 mA cm{sup −2} with an incident-photon-to-current-conversion efficiency (IPCE) of 16% under 350 nm laser illumination with 0.075 W·cm{sup −2} power density. In comparison, the current density for a planar InGaN-layer-photoelectrode is 2 mA cm{sup −2} with IPCE of 9% at zero voltage versus the Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The H{sub 2} generation rates at zero externally applied voltage versus the Pt counter electrode per illuminated area are 2.8 and 1.61 μmol·h{sup −1}·cm{sup −2} for the InGaN nanowalls and InGaN layer, respectively, revealing ∼57% enhancement for the nanowalls.